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Nutrient Intake and Status of German Children and Adolescents Consuming Vegetarian, Vegan or Omnivore Diets: Results of the VeChi Youth Study.
Nutrients. 2021 May 18; 13(5)N

Abstract

There is a lack of data on associations between modern vegetarian and vegan diets and health among children and adolescents. The aim of the Vechi Youth Study was to cross-sectionally examine anthropometry, dietary intakes and nutritional status in a sample of 149 vegetarian, 115 vegan and 137 omnivore children and adolescents (6-18 years old, mean age: 12.7 ± 3.9 years). Group differences of dietary intake (calculated from three-day dietary records), nutrient biomarker and blood lipid concentrations were assessed using an analysis of covariance, adjusted for sex, age and other covariates. The total energy intake did not differ significantly between groups, but intake of carbohydrates was higher among vegetarians and vegans than among omnivores (p = 0.0002, respectively). The median protein intake exceeded 0.9 g/kg body weight/day in all diet groups and was lowest among vegetarians (p < 0.02). There was no significant difference of haemoglobin, vitamin B2, 25-OH vitamin D3, HDL-C and triglycerides blood concentrations between diet groups. Vegan participants had higher folate concentrations than vegetarian participants (p = 0.0053). Ferritin concentration was significantly higher in omnivores than in vegetarians (p = 0.0134) and vegans (p = 0.0404). Vegetarians had lower concentrations of holotranscobalamin (p = 0.0042) and higher concentrations of methylmalonic acid (p = 0.0253) than omnivores. Vegans had the lowest non-HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations in comparison to vegetarians (p = 0.0053 and p = 0.0041) and omnivores (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0010). A high prevalence (>30%) of 25-OH vitamin D3 and vitamin B2 concentrations below reference values were found irrespective of the diet group. In conclusion, the Vechi Youth Study did not indicate specific nutritional risks among vegetarian and vegan children and adolescents compared to omnivores.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Nutritional and Food Science, University of Bonn, 44225 Dortmund, Germany.Faculty of Human Resources, Health & Social Work, University of Applied Sciences (FHM), 33602 Bielefeld, Germany.Research Institute of Plant-Based Nutrition, 35444 Gieβen/Biebertal, Germany.Faculty of Health, Gemeinschaftskrankenhaus Herdecke, Witten Herdecke University, 58313 Herdecke, Germany.Institute of Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany.Medical Laboratory Bremen GmbH, 28359 Bremen, Germany.Research Institute of Plant-Based Nutrition, 35444 Gieβen/Biebertal, Germany.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34069944

Citation

Alexy, Ute, et al. "Nutrient Intake and Status of German Children and Adolescents Consuming Vegetarian, Vegan or Omnivore Diets: Results of the VeChi Youth Study." Nutrients, vol. 13, no. 5, 2021.
Alexy U, Fischer M, Weder S, et al. Nutrient Intake and Status of German Children and Adolescents Consuming Vegetarian, Vegan or Omnivore Diets: Results of the VeChi Youth Study. Nutrients. 2021;13(5).
Alexy, U., Fischer, M., Weder, S., Längler, A., Michalsen, A., Sputtek, A., & Keller, M. (2021). Nutrient Intake and Status of German Children and Adolescents Consuming Vegetarian, Vegan or Omnivore Diets: Results of the VeChi Youth Study. Nutrients, 13(5). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051707
Alexy U, et al. Nutrient Intake and Status of German Children and Adolescents Consuming Vegetarian, Vegan or Omnivore Diets: Results of the VeChi Youth Study. Nutrients. 2021 May 18;13(5) PubMed PMID: 34069944.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Nutrient Intake and Status of German Children and Adolescents Consuming Vegetarian, Vegan or Omnivore Diets: Results of the VeChi Youth Study. AU - Alexy,Ute, AU - Fischer,Morwenna, AU - Weder,Stine, AU - Längler,Alfred, AU - Michalsen,Andreas, AU - Sputtek,Andreas, AU - Keller,Markus, Y1 - 2021/05/18/ PY - 2021/04/22/received PY - 2021/05/12/revised PY - 2021/05/14/accepted PY - 2021/6/2/entrez PY - 2021/6/3/pubmed PY - 2021/7/24/medline KW - adolescents KW - biomarker KW - blood lipids KW - children KW - dietary intake KW - nutrient status KW - vegan diet KW - vegetarian diet JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 13 IS - 5 N2 - There is a lack of data on associations between modern vegetarian and vegan diets and health among children and adolescents. The aim of the Vechi Youth Study was to cross-sectionally examine anthropometry, dietary intakes and nutritional status in a sample of 149 vegetarian, 115 vegan and 137 omnivore children and adolescents (6-18 years old, mean age: 12.7 ± 3.9 years). Group differences of dietary intake (calculated from three-day dietary records), nutrient biomarker and blood lipid concentrations were assessed using an analysis of covariance, adjusted for sex, age and other covariates. The total energy intake did not differ significantly between groups, but intake of carbohydrates was higher among vegetarians and vegans than among omnivores (p = 0.0002, respectively). The median protein intake exceeded 0.9 g/kg body weight/day in all diet groups and was lowest among vegetarians (p < 0.02). There was no significant difference of haemoglobin, vitamin B2, 25-OH vitamin D3, HDL-C and triglycerides blood concentrations between diet groups. Vegan participants had higher folate concentrations than vegetarian participants (p = 0.0053). Ferritin concentration was significantly higher in omnivores than in vegetarians (p = 0.0134) and vegans (p = 0.0404). Vegetarians had lower concentrations of holotranscobalamin (p = 0.0042) and higher concentrations of methylmalonic acid (p = 0.0253) than omnivores. Vegans had the lowest non-HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations in comparison to vegetarians (p = 0.0053 and p = 0.0041) and omnivores (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0010). A high prevalence (>30%) of 25-OH vitamin D3 and vitamin B2 concentrations below reference values were found irrespective of the diet group. In conclusion, the Vechi Youth Study did not indicate specific nutritional risks among vegetarian and vegan children and adolescents compared to omnivores. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34069944/Nutrient_Intake_and_Status_of_German_Children_and_Adolescents_Consuming_Vegetarian_Vegan_or_Omnivore_Diets:_Results_of_the_VeChi_Youth_Study_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu13051707 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -