3D-printed manifold integrating solid contact ion-selective electrodes for multiplexed ion concentration measurements in urine.Talanta. 2021 Sep 01; 232:122491.T
Urinalysis is a simple and non-invasive approach for the diagnosis and monitoring of various health disorders. While urinalysis is predominantly confined to clinical laboratories the non-invasive sample collection makes it applicable in wide range of settings outside of central laboratory confinements. In this respect, 3D printed devices integrating sensors for measuring multiple parameters may be one of the most viable approaches to ensure cost-effectiveness for widespread use. Here we evaluated such a system for the multiplexed determination of sodium, potassium and calcium ions in urine samples with ion-selective electrodes based on state of the art octadecylamine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (OD-MWCNT) solid contacts. The electrodes were tested in the clinically relevant concentration range, i.e. ca. 10-4 - 10-1 mol L-1 and were proven to have Nernstian responses under flow injection conditions. The applicability of the 3D printed flow manifold was investigated through the analysis of synthetic samples and two certified reference materials. The obtained results confirm the suitability of the proposed system for multiplexed ion analysis in urine.