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Real-life dental examination elicits physiological responses different to visual and auditory dental-related stimuli.
PLoS One. 2021; 16(6):e0252128.Plos

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Previous studies on dental anxiety have examined the psychophysiological responses evoked in dentally anxious subjects by dental-related stimuli, but not during a real-life dental examination, which was achieved in the present study.

METHODS

The heart rate, skin conductance level, and heart rate variability of 25 subjects with dental anxiety and 25 healthy controls were examined. Anxiety was determined by the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale and the Dental Anxiety Scale-Revised. The psychophysiological reactions of the two groups were compared during exposure to dental-related pictures, dental-related sounds, and an actual examination in a dental surgery.

RESULTS

All the dental-related stimuli provoked an increase in heart rate, i.e. visual stimuli (p<0.001; 95% CI 0.98-3.95 bpm), auditory stimuli (p<0.001; 95% CI 1.34-4.99 bpm), and a dental examination (p<0.001; 95% CI 1.26-5.39 bpm). Dental-related pictures provoked inferior skin conductance level changes compared to dental-related sounds and the dental examination (visual modality vs auditory p<0.001; 95% CI 0.039-0.152; visual modality vs examination p<0.001; 95% CI 0.083-0.275). Heart rate variability manifested in a complex pattern of responses to the dental examination. However, when exposed to all three dental-related stimuli presentation conditions, the heart rate (F = 0.352, p = 0.556), skin conductance level (F = 0.009, p = 0.926), and heart rate variability parameters of subjects with dental anxiety did not differ in comparison to the healthy controls.

CONCLUSIONS

This pilot study represents an evaluation of psychophysiological reactions during a real-life dental examination compared to single modality stimuli, and shows that a real-life dental examination provokes an increase in heart rate, heart rate variability and skin conductance level. Additionally, autonomic responses did not differ between the experimental and control groups. The key issue for future studies is the effect of real-life situations on the physiological and psychological state of the subjects, which should be considered when planning new research and studied in depth.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Information Technologies, University of Primorska, Koper, Slovenia.Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Information Technologies, University of Primorska, Koper, Slovenia. Department of Endodontics, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.Department of Endodontics, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Department of Dental Diseases and Normal Dental Morphology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.Department of Endodontics, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Department of Dental Diseases and Normal Dental Morphology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Information Technologies, University of Primorska, Koper, Slovenia. Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Pharmacology and Experimental Toxicology, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34081713

Citation

Košir, Tadea, et al. "Real-life Dental Examination Elicits Physiological Responses Different to Visual and Auditory Dental-related Stimuli." PloS One, vol. 16, no. 6, 2021, pp. e0252128.
Košir T, Sajovic J, Grošelj M, et al. Real-life dental examination elicits physiological responses different to visual and auditory dental-related stimuli. PLoS One. 2021;16(6):e0252128.
Košir, T., Sajovic, J., Grošelj, M., Fidler, A., Drevenšek, G., & Selič-Zupančič, P. (2021). Real-life dental examination elicits physiological responses different to visual and auditory dental-related stimuli. PloS One, 16(6), e0252128. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0252128
Košir T, et al. Real-life Dental Examination Elicits Physiological Responses Different to Visual and Auditory Dental-related Stimuli. PLoS One. 2021;16(6):e0252128. PubMed PMID: 34081713.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Real-life dental examination elicits physiological responses different to visual and auditory dental-related stimuli. AU - Košir,Tadea, AU - Sajovic,Jakob, AU - Grošelj,Maja, AU - Fidler,Aleš, AU - Drevenšek,Gorazd, AU - Selič-Zupančič,Polona, Y1 - 2021/06/03/ PY - 2020/05/02/received PY - 2021/05/11/accepted PY - 2021/6/3/entrez PY - 2021/6/4/pubmed PY - 2021/10/28/medline SP - e0252128 EP - e0252128 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 16 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Previous studies on dental anxiety have examined the psychophysiological responses evoked in dentally anxious subjects by dental-related stimuli, but not during a real-life dental examination, which was achieved in the present study. METHODS: The heart rate, skin conductance level, and heart rate variability of 25 subjects with dental anxiety and 25 healthy controls were examined. Anxiety was determined by the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale and the Dental Anxiety Scale-Revised. The psychophysiological reactions of the two groups were compared during exposure to dental-related pictures, dental-related sounds, and an actual examination in a dental surgery. RESULTS: All the dental-related stimuli provoked an increase in heart rate, i.e. visual stimuli (p<0.001; 95% CI 0.98-3.95 bpm), auditory stimuli (p<0.001; 95% CI 1.34-4.99 bpm), and a dental examination (p<0.001; 95% CI 1.26-5.39 bpm). Dental-related pictures provoked inferior skin conductance level changes compared to dental-related sounds and the dental examination (visual modality vs auditory p<0.001; 95% CI 0.039-0.152; visual modality vs examination p<0.001; 95% CI 0.083-0.275). Heart rate variability manifested in a complex pattern of responses to the dental examination. However, when exposed to all three dental-related stimuli presentation conditions, the heart rate (F = 0.352, p = 0.556), skin conductance level (F = 0.009, p = 0.926), and heart rate variability parameters of subjects with dental anxiety did not differ in comparison to the healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study represents an evaluation of psychophysiological reactions during a real-life dental examination compared to single modality stimuli, and shows that a real-life dental examination provokes an increase in heart rate, heart rate variability and skin conductance level. Additionally, autonomic responses did not differ between the experimental and control groups. The key issue for future studies is the effect of real-life situations on the physiological and psychological state of the subjects, which should be considered when planning new research and studied in depth. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34081713/Real_life_dental_examination_elicits_physiological_responses_different_to_visual_and_auditory_dental_related_stimuli_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0252128 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -