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The two-faced effects of nerves and neuropeptides in corneal diseases.
Prog Retin Eye Res. 2022 01; 86:100974.PR

Abstract

Corneal nerves are instrumental to maintain cornea integrity through regulation of key physiological functions such as tear secretion, blink reflex, and neuropeptide turnover. Corneal nerve injury/stimulation can follow many insults including mechanical/chemical trauma, infections and surgeries. Nerve disruption initiates a process named neurogenic inflammation which leads to edema, pain, and recruitment and activation of leukocytes. Interestingly, leukocyte influx in the cornea can further damage nerves by releasing inflammatory mediators-including neuropeptides. The clinical outcome of neuroinflammation can be beneficial or detrimental to corneal integrity. On one side, it ensures prompt wound healing and prevents infections. On the other, prolonged and/or deranged neuroinflammation can permanently disrupt corneal integrity and impair vision. The cornea is an ideal site to study peripheral neuroinflammation and neurogenic inflammation since it receives the highest density of sensory nerves of the entire body. We will review the corneal nerve anatomy and neurochemistry, discuss the beneficial and detrimental effects of neurogenic inflammation in corneal wound healing, inflammatory processes, and pain. We will also examine the emerging remote impact of corneal nerve disruption on the trigeminal ganglion and the brain, highlighting the key role of neuropeptide Substance P. Finally, we will discuss the clinical relevance of such neuroinflammatory network in the context of severe and highly prevalent ocular diseases, including potential treatments.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Cornea and Ocular Surface Disease Unit, Eye Repair Lab, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.Cornea and Ocular Surface Disease Unit, Eye Repair Lab, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.Cornea and Ocular Surface Disease Unit, Eye Repair Lab, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: ferrari.giulio@hsr.it.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34098111

Citation

Lasagni Vitar, Romina Mayra, et al. "The Two-faced Effects of Nerves and Neuropeptides in Corneal Diseases." Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, vol. 86, 2022, p. 100974.
Lasagni Vitar RM, Rama P, Ferrari G. The two-faced effects of nerves and neuropeptides in corneal diseases. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2022;86:100974.
Lasagni Vitar, R. M., Rama, P., & Ferrari, G. (2022). The two-faced effects of nerves and neuropeptides in corneal diseases. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 86, 100974. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2021.100974
Lasagni Vitar RM, Rama P, Ferrari G. The Two-faced Effects of Nerves and Neuropeptides in Corneal Diseases. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2022;86:100974. PubMed PMID: 34098111.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The two-faced effects of nerves and neuropeptides in corneal diseases. AU - Lasagni Vitar,Romina Mayra, AU - Rama,Paolo, AU - Ferrari,Giulio, Y1 - 2021/06/07/ PY - 2021/01/11/received PY - 2021/05/13/revised PY - 2021/05/17/accepted PY - 2021/6/8/pubmed PY - 2021/6/8/medline PY - 2021/6/7/entrez KW - Cornea KW - Corneal nerves KW - Neurogenic inflammation KW - Neuroinflammation KW - Substance P SP - 100974 EP - 100974 JF - Progress in retinal and eye research JO - Prog Retin Eye Res VL - 86 N2 - Corneal nerves are instrumental to maintain cornea integrity through regulation of key physiological functions such as tear secretion, blink reflex, and neuropeptide turnover. Corneal nerve injury/stimulation can follow many insults including mechanical/chemical trauma, infections and surgeries. Nerve disruption initiates a process named neurogenic inflammation which leads to edema, pain, and recruitment and activation of leukocytes. Interestingly, leukocyte influx in the cornea can further damage nerves by releasing inflammatory mediators-including neuropeptides. The clinical outcome of neuroinflammation can be beneficial or detrimental to corneal integrity. On one side, it ensures prompt wound healing and prevents infections. On the other, prolonged and/or deranged neuroinflammation can permanently disrupt corneal integrity and impair vision. The cornea is an ideal site to study peripheral neuroinflammation and neurogenic inflammation since it receives the highest density of sensory nerves of the entire body. We will review the corneal nerve anatomy and neurochemistry, discuss the beneficial and detrimental effects of neurogenic inflammation in corneal wound healing, inflammatory processes, and pain. We will also examine the emerging remote impact of corneal nerve disruption on the trigeminal ganglion and the brain, highlighting the key role of neuropeptide Substance P. Finally, we will discuss the clinical relevance of such neuroinflammatory network in the context of severe and highly prevalent ocular diseases, including potential treatments. SN - 1873-1635 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34098111/The_two-faced_effects_of_nerves_and_neuropeptides_in_corneal_diseases. L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1350-9462(21)00035-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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