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Trends in Venous Thromboembolism Anticoagulation in Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021 06 01; 4(6):e2111788.JN

Abstract

Importance

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication of COVID-19. It is not well understood how hospitals have managed VTE prevention and the effect of prevention strategies on mortality.

Objective

To characterize frequency, variation across hospitals, and change over time in VTE prophylaxis and treatment-dose anticoagulation in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, as well as the association of anticoagulation strategies with in-hospital and 60-day mortality.

Design, Setting, and Participants

This cohort study of adults hospitalized with COVID-19 used a pseudorandom sample from 30 US hospitals in the state of Michigan participating in a collaborative quality initiative. Data analyzed were from patients hospitalized between March 7, 2020, and June 17, 2020. Data were analyzed through March 2021.

Exposures

Nonadherence to VTE prophylaxis (defined as missing ≥2 days of VTE prophylaxis) and receipt of treatment-dose or prophylactic-dose anticoagulants vs no anticoagulation during hospitalization.

Main Outcomes and Measures

The effect of nonadherence and anticoagulation strategies on in-hospital and 60-day mortality was assessed using multinomial logit models with inverse probability of treatment weighting.

Results

Of a total 1351 patients with COVID-19 included (median [IQR] age, 64 [52-75] years; 47.7% women, 48.9% Black patients), only 18 (1.3%) had a confirmed VTE, and 219 (16.2%) received treatment-dose anticoagulation. Use of treatment-dose anticoagulation without imaging ranged from 0% to 29% across hospitals and increased over time (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.31-1.61 per week). Of 1127 patients who ever received anticoagulation, 392 (34.8%) missed 2 or more days of prophylaxis. Missed prophylaxis varied from 11% to 61% across hospitals and decreased markedly over time (aOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.97 per week). VTE nonadherence was associated with higher 60-day (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03-1.67) but not in-hospital mortality (aHR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.91-1.03). Receiving any dose of anticoagulation (vs no anticoagulation) was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (only prophylactic dose: aHR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.26-0.52; any treatment dose: aHR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.25-0.58). However, only the prophylactic dose of anticoagulation remained associated with lower mortality at 60 days (prophylactic dose: aHR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.90; treatment dose: aHR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.63-1.35).

Conclusions and Relevance

This large, multicenter cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, found evidence of rapid dissemination and implementation of anticoagulation strategies, including use of treatment-dose anticoagulation. As only prophylactic-dose anticoagulation was associated with lower 60-day mortality, prophylactic dosing strategies may be optimal for patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City. Division of Health System Innovation & Research, Department of Population Health Science, University of Utah, Salt Lake City. Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Michigan Value Collaborative, Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Michigan Value Collaborative, Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Division of Hospital Medicine, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan.Michigan Arthroplasty Registry Collaborative Quality Initiative, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34115129

Citation

Vaughn, Valerie M., et al. "Trends in Venous Thromboembolism Anticoagulation in Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19." JAMA Network Open, vol. 4, no. 6, 2021, pp. e2111788.
Vaughn VM, Yost M, Abshire C, et al. Trends in Venous Thromboembolism Anticoagulation in Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(6):e2111788.
Vaughn, V. M., Yost, M., Abshire, C., Flanders, S. A., Paje, D., Grant, P., Kaatz, S., Kim, T., & Barnes, G. D. (2021). Trends in Venous Thromboembolism Anticoagulation in Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19. JAMA Network Open, 4(6), e2111788. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11788
Vaughn VM, et al. Trends in Venous Thromboembolism Anticoagulation in Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 06 1;4(6):e2111788. PubMed PMID: 34115129.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Trends in Venous Thromboembolism Anticoagulation in Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19. AU - Vaughn,Valerie M, AU - Yost,Monica, AU - Abshire,Chelsea, AU - Flanders,Scott A, AU - Paje,David, AU - Grant,Paul, AU - Kaatz,Scott, AU - Kim,Tae, AU - Barnes,Geoffrey D, Y1 - 2021/06/01/ PY - 2021/6/11/entrez PY - 2021/6/12/pubmed PY - 2021/6/23/medline SP - e2111788 EP - e2111788 JF - JAMA network open JO - JAMA Netw Open VL - 4 IS - 6 N2 - Importance: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication of COVID-19. It is not well understood how hospitals have managed VTE prevention and the effect of prevention strategies on mortality. Objective: To characterize frequency, variation across hospitals, and change over time in VTE prophylaxis and treatment-dose anticoagulation in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, as well as the association of anticoagulation strategies with in-hospital and 60-day mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study of adults hospitalized with COVID-19 used a pseudorandom sample from 30 US hospitals in the state of Michigan participating in a collaborative quality initiative. Data analyzed were from patients hospitalized between March 7, 2020, and June 17, 2020. Data were analyzed through March 2021. Exposures: Nonadherence to VTE prophylaxis (defined as missing ≥2 days of VTE prophylaxis) and receipt of treatment-dose or prophylactic-dose anticoagulants vs no anticoagulation during hospitalization. Main Outcomes and Measures: The effect of nonadherence and anticoagulation strategies on in-hospital and 60-day mortality was assessed using multinomial logit models with inverse probability of treatment weighting. Results: Of a total 1351 patients with COVID-19 included (median [IQR] age, 64 [52-75] years; 47.7% women, 48.9% Black patients), only 18 (1.3%) had a confirmed VTE, and 219 (16.2%) received treatment-dose anticoagulation. Use of treatment-dose anticoagulation without imaging ranged from 0% to 29% across hospitals and increased over time (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.31-1.61 per week). Of 1127 patients who ever received anticoagulation, 392 (34.8%) missed 2 or more days of prophylaxis. Missed prophylaxis varied from 11% to 61% across hospitals and decreased markedly over time (aOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.97 per week). VTE nonadherence was associated with higher 60-day (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03-1.67) but not in-hospital mortality (aHR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.91-1.03). Receiving any dose of anticoagulation (vs no anticoagulation) was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (only prophylactic dose: aHR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.26-0.52; any treatment dose: aHR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.25-0.58). However, only the prophylactic dose of anticoagulation remained associated with lower mortality at 60 days (prophylactic dose: aHR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.90; treatment dose: aHR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.63-1.35). Conclusions and Relevance: This large, multicenter cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, found evidence of rapid dissemination and implementation of anticoagulation strategies, including use of treatment-dose anticoagulation. As only prophylactic-dose anticoagulation was associated with lower 60-day mortality, prophylactic dosing strategies may be optimal for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. SN - 2574-3805 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34115129/Trends_in_Venous_Thromboembolism_Anticoagulation_in_Patients_Hospitalized_With_COVID_19_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11788 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -