Pyrethroid Resistance and Fitness Cost Conferred by the super-kdr Mutation M918L in Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae).J Econ Entomol. 2021 08 05; 114(4):1789-1795.JE
Pyrethroid insecticides have been widely utilized for insect pest control. Target-site resistance is one of the major mechanisms explaining pest resistance to pyrethroids. This study quantified pyrethroid resistance and fitness cost conferred by the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) M918L mutation in Rhopalosiphum padi. Six s-kdr-SS and six s-kdr-RS parthenogenetic lineages were established from the same field population and were reared in the laboratory without exposure to pesticides for more than one year. Enzyme activity analysis demonstrated that metabolic resistance had no impact on these lineages. Bioassays showed that the M918L mutation strongly affected pyrethroid efficiency, conferring moderate resistance to bifenthrin (type I) (39.0-fold) and high resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin (type II) (194.7-fold). Compared with the life table of s-kdr-SS lineages, s-kdr-RS lineages exhibited a relative fitness cost with significant decreases in longevity and fecundity. Meanwhile, competitive fitness was measured by blending various ratios of s-kdr-SS and s-kdr-SS aphids. The results indicated that M918L-mediated resistance showed a significant fitness cost in the presence of wild aphids without insecticide pressure. The fitness cost strongly correlated with the initial resistance allele frequency. This work characterized the novel s-kdr M918L mutation in R. padi, defined its function in resistance to different types of pyrethroids, and documented that the M918L-mediated resistance has a significant fitness cost.