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The Impact of Seattle's Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax on Substitution to Sweets and Salty Snacks.
J Nutr. 2021 10 01; 151(10):3232-3239.JN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes may have broad effects on purchases of untaxed foods, and substitution of SSBs with untaxed sweets and/or salty snacks could offset the intended dietary and health effects of these policies.

OBJECTIVES

To test whether there were changes in sales and calories sold for untaxed foods in response to the SSB tax in Seattle, Washington, at 12 and 24 months post-tax implementation.

METHODS

On 1 January 2018, the City of Seattle levied a 1.75 cents per ounce excise tax on distributors selling targeted SSBs. We utilized universal product code-level store scanner data and employed a difference-in-differences approach to assess the impacts of the tax on the changes in 1) sales of sweets and salty snacks; and 2) total calories sold for sweets in Seattle relative to changes in its comparison site of Portland, Oregon, at 12 and 24 months post-tax.

RESULTS

In the 12 months post-tax, sales of sweets increased by 4% [ratio of incidence rate ratios (RIRR), 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03-1.05] in Seattle relative to the changes in Portland; at 24 months post-tax, sweet sales increased by 6% (RIRR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.05-1.07) relative to the pretax period. There was no significant change in sales of salty snacks at 12 months (RIRR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.01) or 24 months (RIRR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.98-1.02) post-tax. Total calories sold for sweets increased by 3% (RIRR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05) in Seattle compared with Portland at 12 months post-tax and by 4% (RIRR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05) at 24 months after implementation.

CONCLUSIONS

There was modest substitution of SSBs for sweets in Seattle following tax implementation. However, this increase in sales and calories sold is not likely to offset previously identified tax-related reductions in the demand for taxed beverages in Seattle. Thus, SSB taxes are a promising policy tool to reduce caloric intake in the United States.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Division of Health Policy and Administration, School of Public Health, University of Illinois Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34159364

Citation

Oddo, Vanessa M., et al. "The Impact of Seattle's Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax On Substitution to Sweets and Salty Snacks." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 151, no. 10, 2021, pp. 3232-3239.
Oddo VM, Leider J, Powell LM. The Impact of Seattle's Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax on Substitution to Sweets and Salty Snacks. J Nutr. 2021;151(10):3232-3239.
Oddo, V. M., Leider, J., & Powell, L. M. (2021). The Impact of Seattle's Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax on Substitution to Sweets and Salty Snacks. The Journal of Nutrition, 151(10), 3232-3239. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxab194
Oddo VM, Leider J, Powell LM. The Impact of Seattle's Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax On Substitution to Sweets and Salty Snacks. J Nutr. 2021 10 1;151(10):3232-3239. PubMed PMID: 34159364.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The Impact of Seattle's Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax on Substitution to Sweets and Salty Snacks. AU - Oddo,Vanessa M, AU - Leider,Julien, AU - Powell,Lisa M, PY - 2021/04/07/received PY - 2021/05/11/revised PY - 2021/05/24/accepted PY - 2021/6/24/pubmed PY - 2022/2/17/medline PY - 2021/6/23/entrez KW - SSB tax KW - calories KW - nutrition policy KW - obesity policy KW - sugar-sweetened beverages SP - 3232 EP - 3239 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J Nutr VL - 151 IS - 10 N2 - BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes may have broad effects on purchases of untaxed foods, and substitution of SSBs with untaxed sweets and/or salty snacks could offset the intended dietary and health effects of these policies. OBJECTIVES: To test whether there were changes in sales and calories sold for untaxed foods in response to the SSB tax in Seattle, Washington, at 12 and 24 months post-tax implementation. METHODS: On 1 January 2018, the City of Seattle levied a 1.75 cents per ounce excise tax on distributors selling targeted SSBs. We utilized universal product code-level store scanner data and employed a difference-in-differences approach to assess the impacts of the tax on the changes in 1) sales of sweets and salty snacks; and 2) total calories sold for sweets in Seattle relative to changes in its comparison site of Portland, Oregon, at 12 and 24 months post-tax. RESULTS: In the 12 months post-tax, sales of sweets increased by 4% [ratio of incidence rate ratios (RIRR), 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03-1.05] in Seattle relative to the changes in Portland; at 24 months post-tax, sweet sales increased by 6% (RIRR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.05-1.07) relative to the pretax period. There was no significant change in sales of salty snacks at 12 months (RIRR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.01) or 24 months (RIRR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.98-1.02) post-tax. Total calories sold for sweets increased by 3% (RIRR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05) in Seattle compared with Portland at 12 months post-tax and by 4% (RIRR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05) at 24 months after implementation. CONCLUSIONS: There was modest substitution of SSBs for sweets in Seattle following tax implementation. However, this increase in sales and calories sold is not likely to offset previously identified tax-related reductions in the demand for taxed beverages in Seattle. Thus, SSB taxes are a promising policy tool to reduce caloric intake in the United States. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34159364/The_Impact_of_Seattle's_Sugar_Sweetened_Beverage_Tax_on_Substitution_to_Sweets_and_Salty_Snacks_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jn/nxab194 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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