Identification of non-volatile compounds that negatively impact whole wheat bread flavor liking.Food Chem. 2021 Dec 01; 364:130362.FC
Untargeted LC-MS flavoromic analysis was utilized to identify chemical compounds that impact consumer liking of whole wheat bread. Chemical fingerprints of thirteen whole wheat breads were modeled against consumer flavor liking scores by orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) with good fit (R2Y = 0.98) and predictive ability (Q2 = 0.95). The four most predictive features (negatively correlated) were identified as 9S,12S,13S-trihydroxy-octadec-10E-enoic acid (pinellic acid), 9S,12S,13S-trihydroxy-octadeca-10E,15Z-dienoic acid, 8R*,9R*,10S*-trihydroxy-octadec-6Z-enoic acid, and 1-(octadeca-9Z,12Z-dienoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. Sensory validation studies including bitter threshold determination and recombination tests confirmed the contribution of these compounds to the perceived bitterness intensity of the bread samples and the overall negative impact on flavor liking. Lipoxygenase activity of the flour was reported to have a significant impact on the formation of the three bitter compounds (trihydroxy fatty acids) in the bread samples.