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Iron deficiency anemia among children aged 2-5 years in southern Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study.
PeerJ. 2021; 9:e11649.P

Abstract

Background

Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is a common type of nutritional anemia in low-income countries, including Ethiopia. However, there is limited data on iron deficiency anemia prevalence and associated factors in Ethiopia, particularly for children aged 2 to 5 years.

Objectives

To establish the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia and associated risk factors, focusing on iron-rich food consumption among children aged 2 to 5 years in southern Ethiopia.

Methods

A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in southern Ethiopia in 2017, involving 331 randomly selected children aged 2 to 5 years old. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information about the children and the households. Venous blood was collected from each child in a test tube to measure hemoglobin, ferritin, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Hemoglobin levels were determined using Hemocue®301 and adjusted for altitude. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels <11 g/dl. Ferritin was adjusted for inflammation based on CRP concentration and low ferritin concentration defined as adjusted ferritin concentration <12 µg/L. IDA was considered when a child had both hemoglobin level <11g/dl and low ferritin concentration. Bi-variable and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to identify factors associated with IDA and iron-rich food consumption.

Results

The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was 25%, and the total anemia prevalence was 32%. Only 15% of children consumed iron-rich foods in the preceding 24 h, and 30% of children consumed iron-rich foods at least once in the preceding week. IDA decreased as the height for age z-score increased (Adjusted Odds Ratio 0.7; 95% CI [0.5-0.9]). Mothers with increased educational level (AOR 1.1; 1.0-1.2) and households with increased dietary diversity (AOR 1.4; 1.2-1.6) consumed more iron-rich foods.

Conclusions

Iron deficiency anaemia was a moderate public health problem in southern Ethiopia, and the iron-rich food consumption was low. Interventions should focus on food supplementation and fortification, food diversification and nutritional education, and promoting women's education.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia. Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia. Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Chr. Michelsen Institute, Bergen, Norway.School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia. Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34249504

Citation

Orsango, Alemselam Zebdewos, et al. "Iron Deficiency Anemia Among Children Aged 2-5 Years in Southern Ethiopia: a Community-based Cross-sectional Study." PeerJ, vol. 9, 2021, pp. e11649.
Orsango AZ, Habtu W, Lejisa T, et al. Iron deficiency anemia among children aged 2-5 years in southern Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study. PeerJ. 2021;9:e11649.
Orsango, A. Z., Habtu, W., Lejisa, T., Loha, E., Lindtjørn, B., & Engebretsen, I. M. S. (2021). Iron deficiency anemia among children aged 2-5 years in southern Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study. PeerJ, 9, e11649. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11649
Orsango AZ, et al. Iron Deficiency Anemia Among Children Aged 2-5 Years in Southern Ethiopia: a Community-based Cross-sectional Study. PeerJ. 2021;9:e11649. PubMed PMID: 34249504.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Iron deficiency anemia among children aged 2-5 years in southern Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study. AU - Orsango,Alemselam Zebdewos, AU - Habtu,Wossene, AU - Lejisa,Tadesse, AU - Loha,Eskindir, AU - Lindtjørn,Bernt, AU - Engebretsen,Ingunn Marie S, Y1 - 2021/06/28/ PY - 2020/12/16/received PY - 2021/05/29/accepted PY - 2021/7/12/entrez PY - 2021/7/13/pubmed PY - 2021/7/13/medline KW - C-reactive protein KW - Dietary diversity KW - Iron deficiency anemia KW - Iron-rich food consumption KW - Serum ferritin SP - e11649 EP - e11649 JF - PeerJ JO - PeerJ VL - 9 N2 - Background: Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is a common type of nutritional anemia in low-income countries, including Ethiopia. However, there is limited data on iron deficiency anemia prevalence and associated factors in Ethiopia, particularly for children aged 2 to 5 years. Objectives: To establish the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia and associated risk factors, focusing on iron-rich food consumption among children aged 2 to 5 years in southern Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in southern Ethiopia in 2017, involving 331 randomly selected children aged 2 to 5 years old. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information about the children and the households. Venous blood was collected from each child in a test tube to measure hemoglobin, ferritin, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Hemoglobin levels were determined using Hemocue®301 and adjusted for altitude. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels <11 g/dl. Ferritin was adjusted for inflammation based on CRP concentration and low ferritin concentration defined as adjusted ferritin concentration <12 µg/L. IDA was considered when a child had both hemoglobin level <11g/dl and low ferritin concentration. Bi-variable and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to identify factors associated with IDA and iron-rich food consumption. Results: The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was 25%, and the total anemia prevalence was 32%. Only 15% of children consumed iron-rich foods in the preceding 24 h, and 30% of children consumed iron-rich foods at least once in the preceding week. IDA decreased as the height for age z-score increased (Adjusted Odds Ratio 0.7; 95% CI [0.5-0.9]). Mothers with increased educational level (AOR 1.1; 1.0-1.2) and households with increased dietary diversity (AOR 1.4; 1.2-1.6) consumed more iron-rich foods. Conclusions: Iron deficiency anaemia was a moderate public health problem in southern Ethiopia, and the iron-rich food consumption was low. Interventions should focus on food supplementation and fortification, food diversification and nutritional education, and promoting women's education. SN - 2167-8359 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34249504/Iron_deficiency_anemia_among_children_aged_2_5_years_in_southern_Ethiopia:_a_community_based_cross_sectional_study_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11649 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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