Validation of the Japanese version of Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-9 (SAVE-9) and relationship among stress, insomnia, anxiety, and depression in healthcare workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019.Sleep Med. 2021 08; 84:397-402.SM
This study aimed to validate the Japanese version of the 9-item Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics scale (SAVE-9) and the relationships among the stress related to viral epidemics, insomnia, anxiety, and depression.
A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted online. In total, 1000 healthcare workers (579 men, 421 women; mean age: 43.11 ± 11.69 years) were asked to complete the SAVE-9, Athens Insomnia Scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale, and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. For the analysis, participants were divided into two groups: healthcare workers at a medical institution designated for COVID-19 (COVID institution) and those working at an institution not designated for COVID-19 (non-COVID institution).
Item response theory analysis showed that the SAVE-9 and SAVE-6 (6-item version) had good structural validity and internal consistency (ω = 0.91 and 0.93). Correlation analysis for convergent validity showed a significant positive correlation between both the SAVE-9 and SAVE-6 and the other scales for insomnia, anxiety, and depression. In addition, both SAVE-9 and SAVE-6 scores were higher for workers in COVID institutions than for those in non-COVID institutions. Furthermore, stress related to viral epidemics was found to directly affect anxiety (β = 0.48) and depression (β = 0.25) and indirectly affect anxiety (β = 0.37) and depression (β = 0.54) via insomnia (β = 0.33).
This study confirmed that the reliability and validity of both the SAVE-9 and SAVE-6 and that insomnia mediated the effects of stress to viral epidemics on anxiety and depression symptoms.