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Validation of the Japanese version of Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-9 (SAVE-9) and relationship among stress, insomnia, anxiety, and depression in healthcare workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019.
Sleep Med. 2021 08; 84:397-402.SM

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to validate the Japanese version of the 9-item Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics scale (SAVE-9) and the relationships among the stress related to viral epidemics, insomnia, anxiety, and depression.

PATIENTS/METHODS

A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted online. In total, 1000 healthcare workers (579 men, 421 women; mean age: 43.11 ± 11.69 years) were asked to complete the SAVE-9, Athens Insomnia Scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale, and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. For the analysis, participants were divided into two groups: healthcare workers at a medical institution designated for COVID-19 (COVID institution) and those working at an institution not designated for COVID-19 (non-COVID institution).

RESULTS

Item response theory analysis showed that the SAVE-9 and SAVE-6 (6-item version) had good structural validity and internal consistency (ω = 0.91 and 0.93). Correlation analysis for convergent validity showed a significant positive correlation between both the SAVE-9 and SAVE-6 and the other scales for insomnia, anxiety, and depression. In addition, both SAVE-9 and SAVE-6 scores were higher for workers in COVID institutions than for those in non-COVID institutions. Furthermore, stress related to viral epidemics was found to directly affect anxiety (β = 0.48) and depression (β = 0.25) and indirectly affect anxiety (β = 0.37) and depression (β = 0.54) via insomnia (β = 0.33).

CONCLUSIONS

This study confirmed that the reliability and validity of both the SAVE-9 and SAVE-6 and that insomnia mediated the effects of stress to viral epidemics on anxiety and depression symptoms.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychological Counseling, Faculty of Humanities, Tokyo Kasei University, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: okajima-i@tokyo-kasei.ac.jp.Department of Psychiatry, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.Department of Psychology, Sungshin Women's University, Seoul, South Korea.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34265636

Citation

Okajima, Isa, et al. "Validation of the Japanese Version of Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-9 (SAVE-9) and Relationship Among Stress, Insomnia, Anxiety, and Depression in Healthcare Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019." Sleep Medicine, vol. 84, 2021, pp. 397-402.
Okajima I, Chung S, Suh S. Validation of the Japanese version of Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-9 (SAVE-9) and relationship among stress, insomnia, anxiety, and depression in healthcare workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. Sleep Med. 2021;84:397-402.
Okajima, I., Chung, S., & Suh, S. (2021). Validation of the Japanese version of Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-9 (SAVE-9) and relationship among stress, insomnia, anxiety, and depression in healthcare workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. Sleep Medicine, 84, 397-402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2021.06.035
Okajima I, Chung S, Suh S. Validation of the Japanese Version of Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-9 (SAVE-9) and Relationship Among Stress, Insomnia, Anxiety, and Depression in Healthcare Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019. Sleep Med. 2021;84:397-402. PubMed PMID: 34265636.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Validation of the Japanese version of Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-9 (SAVE-9) and relationship among stress, insomnia, anxiety, and depression in healthcare workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. AU - Okajima,Isa, AU - Chung,Seockhoon, AU - Suh,Sooyeon, Y1 - 2021/06/29/ PY - 2021/03/05/received PY - 2021/05/25/revised PY - 2021/06/21/accepted PY - 2021/7/16/pubmed PY - 2021/8/13/medline PY - 2021/7/15/entrez KW - Anxiety KW - COVID-19 KW - Cross-sectional survey KW - Depression KW - Insomnia KW - Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics SP - 397 EP - 402 JF - Sleep medicine JO - Sleep Med VL - 84 N2 - OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to validate the Japanese version of the 9-item Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics scale (SAVE-9) and the relationships among the stress related to viral epidemics, insomnia, anxiety, and depression. PATIENTS/METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted online. In total, 1000 healthcare workers (579 men, 421 women; mean age: 43.11 ± 11.69 years) were asked to complete the SAVE-9, Athens Insomnia Scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale, and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. For the analysis, participants were divided into two groups: healthcare workers at a medical institution designated for COVID-19 (COVID institution) and those working at an institution not designated for COVID-19 (non-COVID institution). RESULTS: Item response theory analysis showed that the SAVE-9 and SAVE-6 (6-item version) had good structural validity and internal consistency (ω = 0.91 and 0.93). Correlation analysis for convergent validity showed a significant positive correlation between both the SAVE-9 and SAVE-6 and the other scales for insomnia, anxiety, and depression. In addition, both SAVE-9 and SAVE-6 scores were higher for workers in COVID institutions than for those in non-COVID institutions. Furthermore, stress related to viral epidemics was found to directly affect anxiety (β = 0.48) and depression (β = 0.25) and indirectly affect anxiety (β = 0.37) and depression (β = 0.54) via insomnia (β = 0.33). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed that the reliability and validity of both the SAVE-9 and SAVE-6 and that insomnia mediated the effects of stress to viral epidemics on anxiety and depression symptoms. SN - 1878-5506 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34265636/Validation_of_the_Japanese_version_of_Stress_and_Anxiety_to_Viral_Epidemics-9_(SAVE-9)_and_relationship_among_stress,_insomnia,_anxiety,_and_depression_in_healthcare_workers_exposed_to_coronavirus_disease_2019. L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1389-9457(21)00370-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -