Simple prognostic factors and change of inflammatory markers in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019: a single-center observational study.Acute Med Surg. 2021 Jan-Dec; 8(1):e683.AM
The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors and evaluate the change in inflammatory markers of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring mechanical ventilation.
This retrospective observational study conducted from April 1, 2020, to February 18, 2021, included 97 adult patients who required mechanical ventilation for severe COVID-19 pneumonia and excluded nonintubated patients with a positive COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction test and those who had any obvious bacterial infection on admission. All patients were followed up to discharge or death. We obtained clinical information and laboratory data including levels of presepsin, interleukin-6, procalcitonin, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody every day. Poor outcome was defined as death or receiving a tracheostomy during hospitalization, and favorable outcome was defined as discharge after extubation.
Differences (median [interquartile range]) were detected in age (76 [70-82] versus 66 [55-74] years), day from the onset of first symptoms to admission for mechanical ventilation (5 [3-7] versus 10 [8-12] days), and P/F ratio (i.e., ratio of arterial oxygen concentration to the fraction of inspired oxygen) after intubation (186 [149-251] versus 236 [180-296]) in patients with poor outcome versus those with favorable outcome on admission. Serum SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels had already increased on admission in patients with favorable outcome. We determined the day from the onset of first symptoms to admission for mechanical ventilation to be one of the independent prognostic factors of patients with COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio 0.69, confidence interval 0.56-0.85).
These results may contribute to understanding the mechanism of progression in severe COVID-19 and may be helpful in devising an effective therapeutic strategy.