SARS-CoV-2: fate in water environments and sewage surveillance as an early warning system.Water Sci Technol. 2021 Jul; 84(1):1-15.WS
The carwash is known as one of the most important urban services that brings about the production of huge volume of wastewater with high turbidity and high chemical oxygen demand (COD). Seasonal and carwash location features affect the quality of carwash wastewater. Various methods with special focus on chemical processes have been employed for carwash wastewater treatment and eliminating different pollutants from this wastewater of great concern for the environment. This review was conducted for identifying and comparing the efficiency of chemical processes for carwash wastewater treatment. To this aim, key words were identified and a search protocol was defined to search studies in three databases: Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed. The results of this systematic review indicated that coagulation (66%) is the most common chemical processes for carwash wastewater treatment. Although chemical processes are able to reduce the turbidity and COD over 80%. Due to the characteristics of carwash wastewater, chemical processes are a necessary pretreatment for processes such as membrane technology. Rapid treatment and high efficiency are the advantages of wastewater treatment by chemical methods, but the energy consumption and sludge volume are two main factors in selection the chemical processes for carwash wastewater treatment.