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A Review of Ladybug Taint in Wine: Origins, Prevention, and Remediation.
Molecules. 2021 Jul 17; 26(14)M

Abstract

Ladybug taint (also known as ladybird taint) is a relatively recently recognized fault that has been identified in wines from a wide range of terroirs. Alkyl-methoxypyrazines-particularly 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine-have been determined as the causal compounds, and these are introduced into grape must during processing, when specific species of vineyard-dwelling Coccinellidae are incorporated into the harvested fruit. Coccinella septempunctata, and especially the invasive Harmonia axyridis, are the beetles implicated, and climate change is facilitating wider dispersal and survivability of H. axyridis in viticultural regions worldwide. Affected wines are typically characterized as possessing excessively green, bell pepper-, and peanut-like aroma and flavor. In this paper, we review a range of vineyard practices that seek to reduce Coccinellidae densities, as well as both "standard" and novel wine treatments aimed at reducing alkyl-methoxypyrazine load. We conclude that while prevention of ladybug taint is preferable, there are several winery interventions that can remediate the quality of wine affected by this taint, although they vary in their relative efficacy and specificity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Departments of Biological Sciences and Psychology, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada. Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada. National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia. Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD 4556, Australia.Department of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2133, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34299616

Citation

Pickering, Gary J., and Andreea Botezatu. "A Review of Ladybug Taint in Wine: Origins, Prevention, and Remediation." Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 26, no. 14, 2021.
Pickering GJ, Botezatu A. A Review of Ladybug Taint in Wine: Origins, Prevention, and Remediation. Molecules. 2021;26(14).
Pickering, G. J., & Botezatu, A. (2021). A Review of Ladybug Taint in Wine: Origins, Prevention, and Remediation. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 26(14). https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144341
Pickering GJ, Botezatu A. A Review of Ladybug Taint in Wine: Origins, Prevention, and Remediation. Molecules. 2021 Jul 17;26(14) PubMed PMID: 34299616.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A Review of Ladybug Taint in Wine: Origins, Prevention, and Remediation. AU - Pickering,Gary J, AU - Botezatu,Andreea, Y1 - 2021/07/17/ PY - 2021/06/21/received PY - 2021/07/12/revised PY - 2021/07/15/accepted PY - 2021/7/24/entrez PY - 2021/7/25/pubmed PY - 2021/9/21/medline KW - grape quality KW - ladybird taint KW - methoxypyrazines KW - wine faults KW - wine quality JF - Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) JO - Molecules VL - 26 IS - 14 N2 - Ladybug taint (also known as ladybird taint) is a relatively recently recognized fault that has been identified in wines from a wide range of terroirs. Alkyl-methoxypyrazines-particularly 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine-have been determined as the causal compounds, and these are introduced into grape must during processing, when specific species of vineyard-dwelling Coccinellidae are incorporated into the harvested fruit. Coccinella septempunctata, and especially the invasive Harmonia axyridis, are the beetles implicated, and climate change is facilitating wider dispersal and survivability of H. axyridis in viticultural regions worldwide. Affected wines are typically characterized as possessing excessively green, bell pepper-, and peanut-like aroma and flavor. In this paper, we review a range of vineyard practices that seek to reduce Coccinellidae densities, as well as both "standard" and novel wine treatments aimed at reducing alkyl-methoxypyrazine load. We conclude that while prevention of ladybug taint is preferable, there are several winery interventions that can remediate the quality of wine affected by this taint, although they vary in their relative efficacy and specificity. SN - 1420-3049 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34299616/A_Review_of_Ladybug_Taint_in_Wine:_Origins_Prevention_and_Remediation_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -