Cross-reactivity of some Micrurus venoms against experimental and therapeutic anti-Micrurus antivenoms.Toxicon. 2021 09; 200:153-164.T
We developed experimental equine polyvalent and monovalent antivenoms against the venoms of Micrurus (M.) fulvius, M. nigrocinctus and M. surinamensis and studied their immunochemical reactivity on the venoms used as immunogens and on M. pyrrhocryptus, M altirostris and M. balyocoriphus venoms. Assessment of the neutralizing capacity of the polyvalent experimental antivenom was based on inhibition of lethality (preincubation and rescue assay experiments in mice) and indirect hemolytic and phospholipase activities. The immunochemical reactivity and neutralizing capacity were compared with those of two therapeutic antivenoms used for the treatment of coral snake envenomation in North America and in Argentina. In general, the experimental antivenom conferred a comparable level of neutralization against the venoms used as immunogens when compared to the therapeutic antivenoms and a certain level of cross-neutralization against the other venoms. The results suggest the need for additional venoms in the immunogenic mixture used, in order to obtain a broad spectrum anti-Micrurus antivenom with a good neutralizing potency. Paraspecific neutralization of South American coral snake venoms, although present at a higher level than the neutralization conferred by available nonspecific Micrurus therapeutic antivenoms, was rather low in relation to the specific neutralizing capacity.