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Leech therapy (Hirudo medicinalis) attenuates testicular damages induced by testicular ischemia/reperfusion in an animal model.
BMC Vet Res. 2021 Jul 27; 17(1):256.BV

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Testicular torsion/detorsion triggers tissue ischemia/reperfusion, leading to reactive oxygen species overgeneration and apoptosis. The saliva of leeches is full of anti-inflammatory, anticoagulants, antioxidants, and antimicrobial agents. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the protective mechanism of leech therapy on testicular ischemia/reperfusion damage.

METHODS

18 adult male rats were randomly divided into three groups: 1-Sham-operated group (SO). 2-Torsion/detorsion (T.D) group: two hours of testicular torsion with two hours of testicular detorsion was performed. 3-Torsion/detorsion + Leech therapy (TDL) group. Sperm parameters (motility, vitality, morphology, and concentration), oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, CAT, GPx, and TAC), histopathological factors (Mean seminiferous tubular diameter, Germinal epithelial cell thickness, Testicular capsule thickness, Johnson's score, and Cosentino's score), and immunohistochemical markers for apoptosis detection (Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3) were measured.

RESULTS

There was a significant difference for all sperm parameters in the T. D group compared to the sham group. Leech therapy significantly increased progressive motility and normal morphology and reduced non-progressive motility. In the TDL group, MDA concentration significantly reduced, and levels of GPx, TAC, and CAT remarkably increased. All evaluated histopathological parameters in the TDL group significantly increased compared to the T. D group except for the testicular capsule thickness. T. D notably increased the expression of Bax and Caspase-3, while the treatment group slowed the rate of apoptosis compared to the control group. Bcl-2 expression in the T. D group was significantly lower than that in the sham group. Leech therapy increased the Bcl-2 expression.

CONCLUSION

Leech therapy attenuates damages to testicular tissue following torsion/detorsion due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. Hence, it can be considered as an effective remedy for testicular ischemia/reperfusion.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran. raisi.a@lu.ac.ir.Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran. Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran. amir.zakian7@gmail.com.Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agriculture Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran. Medicinal Plants and Natural Products Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34315461

Citation

Davoodi, Farshid, et al. "Leech Therapy (Hirudo Medicinalis) Attenuates Testicular Damages Induced By Testicular Ischemia/reperfusion in an Animal Model." BMC Veterinary Research, vol. 17, no. 1, 2021, p. 256.
Davoodi F, Taheri S, Raisi A, et al. Leech therapy (Hirudo medicinalis) attenuates testicular damages induced by testicular ischemia/reperfusion in an animal model. BMC Vet Res. 2021;17(1):256.
Davoodi, F., Taheri, S., Raisi, A., Rajabzadeh, A., Zakian, A., Hablolvarid, M. H., & Ahmadvand, H. (2021). Leech therapy (Hirudo medicinalis) attenuates testicular damages induced by testicular ischemia/reperfusion in an animal model. BMC Veterinary Research, 17(1), 256. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-021-02951-5
Davoodi F, et al. Leech Therapy (Hirudo Medicinalis) Attenuates Testicular Damages Induced By Testicular Ischemia/reperfusion in an Animal Model. BMC Vet Res. 2021 Jul 27;17(1):256. PubMed PMID: 34315461.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Leech therapy (Hirudo medicinalis) attenuates testicular damages induced by testicular ischemia/reperfusion in an animal model. AU - Davoodi,Farshid, AU - Taheri,Shayan, AU - Raisi,Abbas, AU - Rajabzadeh,Asghar, AU - Zakian,Amir, AU - Hablolvarid,Mohammad Hassan, AU - Ahmadvand,Hassan, Y1 - 2021/07/27/ PY - 2021/04/01/received PY - 2021/06/30/accepted PY - 2021/7/28/entrez PY - 2021/7/29/pubmed PY - 2021/11/9/medline KW - Apoptosis KW - Hirudo medicinalis KW - Leech therapy KW - Oxidative stress KW - Sperm parameters KW - Spermatic cord torsion KW - Testicular ischemia/reperfusion SP - 256 EP - 256 JF - BMC veterinary research JO - BMC Vet Res VL - 17 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Testicular torsion/detorsion triggers tissue ischemia/reperfusion, leading to reactive oxygen species overgeneration and apoptosis. The saliva of leeches is full of anti-inflammatory, anticoagulants, antioxidants, and antimicrobial agents. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the protective mechanism of leech therapy on testicular ischemia/reperfusion damage. METHODS: 18 adult male rats were randomly divided into three groups: 1-Sham-operated group (SO). 2-Torsion/detorsion (T.D) group: two hours of testicular torsion with two hours of testicular detorsion was performed. 3-Torsion/detorsion + Leech therapy (TDL) group. Sperm parameters (motility, vitality, morphology, and concentration), oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, CAT, GPx, and TAC), histopathological factors (Mean seminiferous tubular diameter, Germinal epithelial cell thickness, Testicular capsule thickness, Johnson's score, and Cosentino's score), and immunohistochemical markers for apoptosis detection (Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3) were measured. RESULTS: There was a significant difference for all sperm parameters in the T. D group compared to the sham group. Leech therapy significantly increased progressive motility and normal morphology and reduced non-progressive motility. In the TDL group, MDA concentration significantly reduced, and levels of GPx, TAC, and CAT remarkably increased. All evaluated histopathological parameters in the TDL group significantly increased compared to the T. D group except for the testicular capsule thickness. T. D notably increased the expression of Bax and Caspase-3, while the treatment group slowed the rate of apoptosis compared to the control group. Bcl-2 expression in the T. D group was significantly lower than that in the sham group. Leech therapy increased the Bcl-2 expression. CONCLUSION: Leech therapy attenuates damages to testicular tissue following torsion/detorsion due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. Hence, it can be considered as an effective remedy for testicular ischemia/reperfusion. SN - 1746-6148 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34315461/Leech_therapy__Hirudo_medicinalis__attenuates_testicular_damages_induced_by_testicular_ischemia/reperfusion_in_an_animal_model_ L2 - https://bmcvetres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12917-021-02951-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -