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Rapid determination of eight benzodiazepines in suspected counterfeit pharmaceuticals using surface-enhanced Raman scattering with handheld Raman spectrometers.
J Forensic Sci. 2021 Nov; 66(6):2167-2179.JF

Abstract

The excessive prescription of benzodiazepines is putting more people at risk of dependence on these drugs and is exacerbating the fatal overdose toll of opioids. A rapid and sensitive SERS method has been developed for trace detection of select benzodiazepines in low-dosage suspect counterfeit tablets, capsules, and injectable solutions using two different portable handheld Raman spectrometers equipped with either a 785-nm laser or a 1064-nm laser. A total of 169 samples and blanks were examined using five handheld Raman spectrometers, which provided data set of 729 examinations. The extraction/SERS procedures yielded true positive rates above 90% for alprazolam, diazepam, and midazolam using the 1064-nm device and yielded true positive rates above 95% for alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, estazolam, midazolam, and temazepam using the 785-nm device; however, the extraction/SERS procedures yielded true positive rates below 60% for lorazepam and triazolam. The minimum concentration (Cmin) of the benzodiazepine standards that reproducibly yielded a positive match ranged from 1 to 10 μg/ml using the 1064-nm laser device and from 0.5 to 50 μg/ml using the 785-nm laser device. For the analysis of authentic and suspect counterfeit tablets containing these benzodiazepines, the measured Cmin ranged between 10 and 15 µg per tablet or capsule for 1064-nm laser device and 1-100 µg per tablet or capsule for 785-nm laser device. The developed methods are simple, rapid, and ideal for screening suspect benzodiazepine-containing pharmaceutical products at satellite laboratories located within or near international mail facilities and express courier hubs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

US Food and Drug Administration, Forensic Chemistry Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.US Food and Drug Administration, Forensic Chemistry Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.US Food and Drug Administration, Forensic Chemistry Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34318500

Citation

Kimani, Martin M., et al. "Rapid Determination of Eight Benzodiazepines in Suspected Counterfeit Pharmaceuticals Using Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering With Handheld Raman Spectrometers." Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 66, no. 6, 2021, pp. 2167-2179.
Kimani MM, Lanzarotta A, Batson JS. Rapid determination of eight benzodiazepines in suspected counterfeit pharmaceuticals using surface-enhanced Raman scattering with handheld Raman spectrometers. J Forensic Sci. 2021;66(6):2167-2179.
Kimani, M. M., Lanzarotta, A., & Batson, J. S. (2021). Rapid determination of eight benzodiazepines in suspected counterfeit pharmaceuticals using surface-enhanced Raman scattering with handheld Raman spectrometers. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 66(6), 2167-2179. https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14797
Kimani MM, Lanzarotta A, Batson JS. Rapid Determination of Eight Benzodiazepines in Suspected Counterfeit Pharmaceuticals Using Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering With Handheld Raman Spectrometers. J Forensic Sci. 2021;66(6):2167-2179. PubMed PMID: 34318500.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Rapid determination of eight benzodiazepines in suspected counterfeit pharmaceuticals using surface-enhanced Raman scattering with handheld Raman spectrometers. AU - Kimani,Martin M, AU - Lanzarotta,Adam, AU - Batson,JaCinta S, Y1 - 2021/07/27/ PY - 2021/06/03/revised PY - 2021/05/07/received PY - 2021/06/25/accepted PY - 2021/7/29/pubmed PY - 2021/11/19/medline PY - 2021/7/28/entrez KW - benzodiazepines KW - counterfeit pharmaceuticals KW - handheld SERS KW - trace drug analysis SP - 2167 EP - 2179 JF - Journal of forensic sciences JO - J Forensic Sci VL - 66 IS - 6 N2 - The excessive prescription of benzodiazepines is putting more people at risk of dependence on these drugs and is exacerbating the fatal overdose toll of opioids. A rapid and sensitive SERS method has been developed for trace detection of select benzodiazepines in low-dosage suspect counterfeit tablets, capsules, and injectable solutions using two different portable handheld Raman spectrometers equipped with either a 785-nm laser or a 1064-nm laser. A total of 169 samples and blanks were examined using five handheld Raman spectrometers, which provided data set of 729 examinations. The extraction/SERS procedures yielded true positive rates above 90% for alprazolam, diazepam, and midazolam using the 1064-nm device and yielded true positive rates above 95% for alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, estazolam, midazolam, and temazepam using the 785-nm device; however, the extraction/SERS procedures yielded true positive rates below 60% for lorazepam and triazolam. The minimum concentration (Cmin) of the benzodiazepine standards that reproducibly yielded a positive match ranged from 1 to 10 μg/ml using the 1064-nm laser device and from 0.5 to 50 μg/ml using the 785-nm laser device. For the analysis of authentic and suspect counterfeit tablets containing these benzodiazepines, the measured Cmin ranged between 10 and 15 µg per tablet or capsule for 1064-nm laser device and 1-100 µg per tablet or capsule for 785-nm laser device. The developed methods are simple, rapid, and ideal for screening suspect benzodiazepine-containing pharmaceutical products at satellite laboratories located within or near international mail facilities and express courier hubs. SN - 1556-4029 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34318500/Rapid_determination_of_eight_benzodiazepines_in_suspected_counterfeit_pharmaceuticals_using_surface_enhanced_Raman_scattering_with_handheld_Raman_spectrometers_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14797 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -