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Multivariate Analysis Aided Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (MVA-SERS) Multiplex Quantitative Detection of Trace Fentanyl in Illicit Drug Mixtures Using a Handheld Raman Spectrometer.
Appl Spectrosc. 2021 Oct; 75(10):1225-1236.AS

Abstract

Recently there has been upsurge in reports that illicit seizures of cocaine and heroin have been adulterated with fentanyl. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) provides a useful alternative to current screening procedures that permits detection of trace levels of fentanyl in mixtures. Samples are solubilized and allowed to interact with aggregated colloidal nanostars to produce a rapid and sensitive assay. In this study, we present the quantitative determination of fentanyl in heroin and cocaine using SERS, using a point-and-shoot handheld Raman system. Our protocol is optimized to detect pure fentanyl down to 0.20 ± 0.06 ng/mL and can also distinguish pure cocaine and heroin at ng/mL levels. Multiplex analysis of mixtures is enabled by combining SERS detection with principal component analysis and super partial least squares regression discriminate analysis (SPLS-DA), which allow for the determination of fentanyl as low as 0.05% in simulated seized heroin and 0.10% in simulated seized cocaine samples.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL USA.Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL USA.Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL USA.Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL USA.Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA.Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34318708

Citation

Wang, Ling, et al. "Multivariate Analysis Aided Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (MVA-SERS) Multiplex Quantitative Detection of Trace Fentanyl in Illicit Drug Mixtures Using a Handheld Raman Spectrometer." Applied Spectroscopy, vol. 75, no. 10, 2021, pp. 1225-1236.
Wang L, Vendrell-Dones MO, Deriu C, et al. Multivariate Analysis Aided Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (MVA-SERS) Multiplex Quantitative Detection of Trace Fentanyl in Illicit Drug Mixtures Using a Handheld Raman Spectrometer. Appl Spectrosc. 2021;75(10):1225-1236.
Wang, L., Vendrell-Dones, M. O., Deriu, C., Doğruer, S., de B Harrington, P., & McCord, B. (2021). Multivariate Analysis Aided Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (MVA-SERS) Multiplex Quantitative Detection of Trace Fentanyl in Illicit Drug Mixtures Using a Handheld Raman Spectrometer. Applied Spectroscopy, 75(10), 1225-1236. https://doi.org/10.1177/00037028211032930
Wang L, et al. Multivariate Analysis Aided Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (MVA-SERS) Multiplex Quantitative Detection of Trace Fentanyl in Illicit Drug Mixtures Using a Handheld Raman Spectrometer. Appl Spectrosc. 2021;75(10):1225-1236. PubMed PMID: 34318708.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Multivariate Analysis Aided Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (MVA-SERS) Multiplex Quantitative Detection of Trace Fentanyl in Illicit Drug Mixtures Using a Handheld Raman Spectrometer. AU - Wang,Ling, AU - Vendrell-Dones,Mario O, AU - Deriu,Chiara, AU - Doğruer,Sevde, AU - de B Harrington,Peter, AU - McCord,Bruce, Y1 - 2021/07/28/ PY - 2021/7/29/pubmed PY - 2021/10/26/medline PY - 2021/7/28/entrez KW - Fentanyl KW - SERS KW - SPLS-DA KW - chemometrics KW - cocaine KW - heroin KW - super partial least squares regression discriminate analysis KW - surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy SP - 1225 EP - 1236 JF - Applied spectroscopy JO - Appl Spectrosc VL - 75 IS - 10 N2 - Recently there has been upsurge in reports that illicit seizures of cocaine and heroin have been adulterated with fentanyl. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) provides a useful alternative to current screening procedures that permits detection of trace levels of fentanyl in mixtures. Samples are solubilized and allowed to interact with aggregated colloidal nanostars to produce a rapid and sensitive assay. In this study, we present the quantitative determination of fentanyl in heroin and cocaine using SERS, using a point-and-shoot handheld Raman system. Our protocol is optimized to detect pure fentanyl down to 0.20 ± 0.06 ng/mL and can also distinguish pure cocaine and heroin at ng/mL levels. Multiplex analysis of mixtures is enabled by combining SERS detection with principal component analysis and super partial least squares regression discriminate analysis (SPLS-DA), which allow for the determination of fentanyl as low as 0.05% in simulated seized heroin and 0.10% in simulated seized cocaine samples. SN - 1943-3530 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34318708/Multivariate_Analysis_Aided_Surface_Enhanced_Raman_Spectroscopy__MVA_SERS__Multiplex_Quantitative_Detection_of_Trace_Fentanyl_in_Illicit_Drug_Mixtures_Using_a_Handheld_Raman_Spectrometer_ L2 - https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/00037028211032930?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -