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Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on healthcare utilization and direct costs for otitis media in children ≤2 years of age in two Swedish regions.
Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2022 12 31; 18(1):1942712.HV

Abstract

In Sweden, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in 2009 and replaced by the pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) or the 13- valent PCV (PCV13) from late 2009. We assessed the impact of PCVs on rates of antibiotic prescribing, tympanostomy tube placement (TTP), and healthcare resource utilization and direct costs of physician- diagnosed otitis media/acute otitis media (OM) in children ≤2 years of age living in Skåne (PCV7 then PHiD- CV) or Västra Götalandsregionen (VGR; PCV7 then PCV13). Retrospective cohort study using linked patient- level data from national and regional (Skåne and VGR) healthcare databases in Sweden from July 1, 2005, to December 31, 2013 (NCT02742753). Descriptive time-series analyses showed antibiotic prescriptions and TTP incidence declined after PHiD-CV/PCV13 introduction versus the pre-PCV period. The annualized mean frequencies of antibiotic use, primary care visits, outpatient visits, TTP and myringotomy procedures all decreased after PHiD-CV/PCV13 compared with pre-PCV cohorts. Annualized mean total OM-associated healthcare costs decreased in the PCV7 versus pre-PCV cohorts by 20.0% in Skåne and 10.2% in VGR, and further declined in the PHiD-CV and PCV13 cohorts (20.7% and 15.3%, respectively, relative to the PCV7 cohort), although the duration of PCV7 use differed between regions. Decreases in adjusted annualized cost ratios between cohorts per child susceptible to OM were statistically significant after PCV7 introduction and again with either PHiD-CV or PCV13 introduction in both regions. Following sequential PCV introduction, OM-related healthcare utilization and associated costs decreased in the study regions in Sweden.

PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

What is the context?Otitis media is one of the most frequent reasons for healthcare visits and antibiotic use among young children. Although it is considered as a mild illness, the overall economic burden is substantial due to its high frequency.Otitis media can be caused by different bacteria including Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is also responsible for pneumonia and meningitis. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines Prevenar (Pfizer Inc.), Synflorix (GSK), and Prevenar 13 (Pfizer Inc.) protect against pneumococcal diseases and reduce its occurrence.However, it is not known how the routine use of these vaccines may affect otitis media-related healthcare resources and costs.What is new?In this study, we assessed trends in rates of healthcare utilization and associated costs due to otitis media in young children before (2005-2008) and after (2009-2013) use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The study was conducted in two Swedish regions; one used Prevenar then Synflorix, while the other used Prevenar then Prevenar 13.We found that compared to the period before pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation, the postpneumococcal conjugate vaccine period was associated with:What is the impact on current thinking?The use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines effectively reduces healthcare utilization and resources associated with otitis mediaThis indirect effect on the reduction of otitis media burden provides further benefit to the implementation of pneumococcal vaccination.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Parexel International, Stockholm, Sweden.Parexel International, Stockholm, Sweden.Parexel International, Stockholm, Sweden.Parexel International, Stockholm, Sweden.Parexel International, Stockholm, Sweden.GSK, Wavre, Belgium.GSK, Rockville, MD, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34319865

Citation

Edmondson-Jones, Mark, et al. "Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines On Healthcare Utilization and Direct Costs for Otitis Media in Children ≤2 Years of Age in Two Swedish Regions." Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, vol. 18, no. 1, 2022, p. 1942712.
Edmondson-Jones M, Dibbern T, Hultberg M, et al. Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on healthcare utilization and direct costs for otitis media in children ≤2 years of age in two Swedish regions. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2022;18(1):1942712.
Edmondson-Jones, M., Dibbern, T., Hultberg, M., Anell, B., Medin, E., Feng, Y., & Talarico, C. (2022). Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on healthcare utilization and direct costs for otitis media in children ≤2 years of age in two Swedish regions. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 18(1), 1942712. https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1942712
Edmondson-Jones M, et al. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines On Healthcare Utilization and Direct Costs for Otitis Media in Children ≤2 Years of Age in Two Swedish Regions. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2022 12 31;18(1):1942712. PubMed PMID: 34319865.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on healthcare utilization and direct costs for otitis media in children ≤2 years of age in two Swedish regions. AU - Edmondson-Jones,Mark, AU - Dibbern,Therese, AU - Hultberg,Marcus, AU - Anell,Bengt, AU - Medin,Emma, AU - Feng,Yang, AU - Talarico,Carla, Y1 - 2021/07/28/ PY - 2021/7/29/pubmed PY - 2022/4/19/medline PY - 2021/7/28/entrez KW - Cost KW - Sweden KW - antibiotics KW - otitis media KW - pneumococcal conjugate vaccines SP - 1942712 EP - 1942712 JF - Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics JO - Hum Vaccin Immunother VL - 18 IS - 1 N2 - : In Sweden, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in 2009 and replaced by the pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) or the 13- valent PCV (PCV13) from late 2009. We assessed the impact of PCVs on rates of antibiotic prescribing, tympanostomy tube placement (TTP), and healthcare resource utilization and direct costs of physician- diagnosed otitis media/acute otitis media (OM) in children ≤2 years of age living in Skåne (PCV7 then PHiD- CV) or Västra Götalandsregionen (VGR; PCV7 then PCV13). Retrospective cohort study using linked patient- level data from national and regional (Skåne and VGR) healthcare databases in Sweden from July 1, 2005, to December 31, 2013 (NCT02742753). Descriptive time-series analyses showed antibiotic prescriptions and TTP incidence declined after PHiD-CV/PCV13 introduction versus the pre-PCV period. The annualized mean frequencies of antibiotic use, primary care visits, outpatient visits, TTP and myringotomy procedures all decreased after PHiD-CV/PCV13 compared with pre-PCV cohorts. Annualized mean total OM-associated healthcare costs decreased in the PCV7 versus pre-PCV cohorts by 20.0% in Skåne and 10.2% in VGR, and further declined in the PHiD-CV and PCV13 cohorts (20.7% and 15.3%, respectively, relative to the PCV7 cohort), although the duration of PCV7 use differed between regions. Decreases in adjusted annualized cost ratios between cohorts per child susceptible to OM were statistically significant after PCV7 introduction and again with either PHiD-CV or PCV13 introduction in both regions. Following sequential PCV introduction, OM-related healthcare utilization and associated costs decreased in the study regions in Sweden. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: What is the context?Otitis media is one of the most frequent reasons for healthcare visits and antibiotic use among young children. Although it is considered as a mild illness, the overall economic burden is substantial due to its high frequency.Otitis media can be caused by different bacteria including Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is also responsible for pneumonia and meningitis. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines Prevenar (Pfizer Inc.), Synflorix (GSK), and Prevenar 13 (Pfizer Inc.) protect against pneumococcal diseases and reduce its occurrence.However, it is not known how the routine use of these vaccines may affect otitis media-related healthcare resources and costs.What is new?In this study, we assessed trends in rates of healthcare utilization and associated costs due to otitis media in young children before (2005-2008) and after (2009-2013) use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The study was conducted in two Swedish regions; one used Prevenar then Synflorix, while the other used Prevenar then Prevenar 13.We found that compared to the period before pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation, the postpneumococcal conjugate vaccine period was associated with:What is the impact on current thinking?The use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines effectively reduces healthcare utilization and resources associated with otitis mediaThis indirect effect on the reduction of otitis media burden provides further benefit to the implementation of pneumococcal vaccination. SN - 2164-554X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34319865/Impact_of_pneumococcal_conjugate_vaccines_on_healthcare_utilization_and_direct_costs_for_otitis_media_in_children_≤2_years_of_age_in_two_Swedish_regions_ L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21645515.2021.1942712 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -