Setup of an Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction to Obtain High Phenolic Recovery in Crataegus monogyna Leaves.Molecules. 2021 Jul 27; 26(15)M
Hawthorn leaves are a rich source of phenolic compounds that possess beneficial activities for human health. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) is an extraction technique frequently used for the isolation of phenolic compounds in plants. Thus, in this study, a Box-Behnken design was used to optimize UAE conditions such as the percentage of acetone, the extraction time and solvent-to-solid ratio (v/w) in order to obtain the maximum content of total compounds by Folin-Ciocalteu and the maximum in vitro antioxidant activity by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays in Crataegus monogyna leaves. The optimum conditions to obtain the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were 50% acetone, 55 min and 1/1000 (w/v). A total of 30 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in C. monogyna leaf extract obtained at these optimum UAE conditions. HPLC-MS allows the identification and quantification of 19 phenolic compounds and NP-HPLC-FLD analyses showed the presence of 11 proanthocyanidins. According to the results, the most concentrated phenolic compounds in C. monogyna leaf extract obtained at optimum UAE conditions were phenolic acid derivatives such as protocatechuic acid-glucoside, dihydroxy benzoic acid pentoside and chlorogenic acid, flavones such as 2″-O-rhamnosyl-C-hexosyl-apigenin, flavonols such as hyperoside and isoquercetin and proanthocyanidins such as monomer and dimer. As a result, the optimized UAE conditions could be used to obtain an extract of C. monogyna leaves enriched with phenolic compounds.