Complement Inhibitors in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Potential Therapeutic Option.J Immunol Res. 2021; 2021:9945725.JI
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease, which can culminate in irreversible vision loss and blindness in elderly. Nowadays, there is a big gap between dry AMD and wet AMD on treatment. Accounting for nearly 90% of AMD, dry AMD still lacks effective treatment. Numerous genetic and molecular researches have confirmed the significant role of the complement system in the pathogenesis of AMD, leading to a deeper exploration of complement inhibitors in the treatment of AMD. To date, at least 14 different complement inhibitors have been or are being explored in AMD in almost 40 clinical trials. While most complement inhibitors fail to treat AMD successfully, two of them are effective in inhibiting the rate of GA progression in phase II clinical trials, and both of them successfully entered phase III trials. Furthermore, recently emerging complement gene therapy and combination therapy also offer new opportunities to treat AMD in the future. In this review, we aim to introduce genetic and molecular associations between the complement system and AMD, provide the updated progress in complement inhibitors in AMD on clinical trials, and discuss the challenges and prospects of complement therapeutic strategies in AMD.