Novel Coronavirus: A Review from Origin to Current Status of Therapeutic Strategies.Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 2021; 31(3):21-34.CR
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are continuously emerging, highly transmissible, and pathogenic agents that primarily target the human respiratory system. Previous outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV remain life-threatening and global public health concerns. A novel CoV outbreak that occurred in December 2019 in Wuhan, China was declared a pandemic outbreak that has since killed millions of individuals worldwide. Rapid transmission, genetic variations, and unavailability of specific therapeutic drugs are major factors that led to this alarming and deadly situation. Currently, > 200 clinical vaccine trials are underway to combat infection. This review summarizes reports related to CoV origin, genetic variations, drug options, status of nine vaccines that were in phase III trials, and novel therapies including convalescent plasma and stem cell treatment.