[Value of procalcitonin and critical illness score in etiological diagnosis and prognosis of sepsis caused by intra-abdominal infections].Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2021 Jul; 33(7):792-797.ZW
To compare the early and late predictive values of critical illness score (CIS) and procalcitonin (PCT) in septic patients with blood stream infection (BSI) induced by intra-abdominal infection (IAI), and to identify the value of PCT in etiological diagnosis.
The clinical data of patients with at least one positive blood culture within 24 hours admission to the emergency department of China-Japan Friendship Hospital from January 2014 to December 2019 and with final diagnosis of IAI induced sepsis were enrolled. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA), mortality in emergency department sepsis (MEDS), Logistic organ dysfunction system (LODS), and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores were calculated based on the parameters on the day of admission. Differences in various indicators among different Gram-stained bacterial infections and among patients with different prognosis at 28 days or 60 days were compared. Receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC curve) was used to analyze the value of PCT in differential etiological diagnosis of IAI induced sepsis caused by single bacterial infection, and the predictive value of CIS and PCT on 28-day and 60-day death of septic patients with BSI induced by IAI.
A total of 221 septic patients with IAI caused by single bacterial infection were enrolled. The 28-day mortality was 19.9% (44/221), and the 60-day mortality was 25.8% (57/221). Mortality caused by Gram-positive (G+) bacterial infection of patients was significantly higher than that caused by Gram-negative (G-) bacterial infection (28 days: 34.6% vs. 11.4%, 60 days: 42.0% vs. 16.4%, both P < 0.01). Compared with patients with G+ bacterial infection, the PCT value of patients with G- bacterial infection was higher [μg/L: 4.31 (0.71, 25.71) vs. 1.29 (0.32, 10.83), P < 0.05]. Compared with survival group, the values of CIS and PCT in death group were higher, either in 28 days or in 60 days [death group vs. survival group in 28 days: SOFA score was 6.0 (4.0, 10.0) vs. 3.0 (2.0, 5.0), MEDS score: 11 (9, 14) vs. 6 (6, 9), LODS score: 4.0 (2.0, 6.0) vs. 1.0 (0, 2.0), APACHE II score: 17.0 (15.0, 24.0) vs. 12.0 (8.0, 15.0), PCT (μg/L): 3.48 (1.01, 26.70) vs. 2.45 (0.32, 15.65); death group vs. survival group in 60 days: SOFA score: 6.0 (4.0, 10.0) vs. 3.0 (2.0, 5.0), MEDS score: 9 (6, 14) vs. 6 (6, 9), LODS score: 4.0 (1.0, 5.0) vs. 1.0 (0, 2.0), APACHE II score: 16.5 (12.0, 20.0) vs. 12.0 (8.0, 15.0), PCT (μg/L): 2.67 (0.98, 17.73) vs. 2.22 (0.31, 16.75); all P < 0.05]. ROC curve showed that: (1) the area under ROC curve (AUC) of PCT in the diagnosis of IAI induced sepsis with single bacterial infection was 0.740 [95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 0.648-0.833]. When the optimal cut-off value of PCT was 1.82 μg/L, the sensitivity of diagnosis of G- bacterial infection was 74.0%, and the specificity was 68.2%. When PCT value was higher than 10.92 μg/L, the specificity of diagnosis of G- bacterial infection could reach 81.8%. (2) In the prediction of 28-day and 60-day mortality for septic patients with BSI induced by IAI, the APACHE II score achieved the highest AUC [28 days: 0.791 (95%CI was 0.680-0.902), 60 days: 0.748 (95%CI was 0.645-0.851)]. APACHE II score higher than 14.5 could help to predict 28-day and 60-day mortality for IAI patients with negative predictive values of 94.9% and 88.5%. However, the predictive value of PCT for septic patients with BSI induced by IAI was relatively lower [28-day AUC: 0.610 (95%CI was 0.495-0.725), 60-day AUC: 0.558 (95%CI was 0.450-0.667)].
PCT is more reliable in the identification of pathogen type among IAI induced sepsis with BSI, while APACHE II score may perform better in predicting early and late mortality.