Guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract enhances immunity, growth, and resistance against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in white shrimp Penaeus vannamei.Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2021 Nov; 118:1-10.FS
This study investigated the effects of guava leaf extract (GLE) on immune responses, growth performance, and resistance to Vibrio parahaemolyticus in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). To examine the effect of GLE on the immune response of white shrimps, they were treated with various concentrations of GLE on hemocyte (in vitro) and were orally administered (in vivo) feed containing various concentrations of 0, 1, 5, and 10 g kg-1 GLE (control, GLE1, GLE5, and GLE10, respectively) for 28 days. Furthermore, their growth performance was evaluated for 56 days. In a separate experiment, the shrimps were challenged with V. parahaemolyticus injection after 7 days of culture. In vitro experiments indicated that GLE is nontoxic and can activate immune response. In vivo experiments revealed that the GLE5 led to the highest total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, phagocytic activity, and superoxide anion production and the highest upregulation of lipopolysaccharide, β-1,3-glucan-binding protein, peroxinectin, lysozyme, crustin, penaeidin 2, penaeidin 3, clotting protein, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Moreover, better growth performance was observed in the GLE groups, with GLE5 exhibiting the highest specific growth rate, weight gain, and feed conversion rate. In addition, GLE5 enhanced resistance to V. parahaemolyticus, with a survival rate of 72.27%. In conclusion, GLE was found to be effective in enhancing nonspecific immune response and growth performance and in reducing V. parahaemolyticus infection in white shrimp.