Cardiovascular prognosis in patients admitted to an emergency department with hypertensive emergencies and urgencies.J Hypertens. 2021 12 01; 39(12):2514-2520.JH
At present, few data are available on the prognosis of hypertensive emergencies and urgencies admitted to emergency departments.
The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence of total and cardiovascular events during follow-up in hypertensive patients admitted to the emergency departments of Brescia Hospital (Northern Italy) with hypertensive emergencies or urgencies from 1 January to 31 December 2015.
Medical records of patients aged more than 18 years, admitted to the emergency department with SBP values at least 180 mmHg (SBP) and/or DBP values at least 120 mmHg (DBP) were collected and analysed (18% of patients were classified as 'hypertensive emergency' and 82% as 'hypertensive urgency'). Data in 895 patients (385 men and 510 women, mean age 70. 5 ± 15 years) were analysed; the mean duration of follow-up after admission to the emergency department was 12 ± 5 months.
During the follow-up, 96 cardiovascular events (28 fatal) occurred (20 cardiac events, 30 cerebrovascular events, 26 hospital admission for heart failure, 20 cases of new onset kidney disease). In 40 patients (4.5%), a new episode of acute blood pressure rise with referral to the emergency department was recorded. Cardiovascular mortality and morbidity were greater in patients with a previous hypertensive emergency (14.5 vs. 4.5% in patients with hypertensive emergency and urgency, respectively, chi-square, P < 0.0001). Similar results were obtained when the occurrence of cerebrovascular or renal events were considered separately.
Admission to the emergency department for hypertensive emergencies and urgencies identifies hypertensive patients at increased risk for fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. Our findings add some new finding suggesting that further research in this field should be improved aiming to define, prevent, treat and follow hypertensive urgencies and emergencies.