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Current scenario of COVID-19 vaccinations and immune response along with antibody titer in vaccinated inhabitants of different countries.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2021 Oct; 99:108050.II

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic challenges have been only partially addressed so far. The pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 is considered the combination of severe and high infectivity. Herdimmunity is attained when a critical proportion of the population is immune, providing the virus with fewer chances to spread locally. To overcome the rising tide of the COVID-19 pandemic, efficacious and safe vaccines providing defensive and long-lasting immunity responses are urgently needed.Vaccines that induce virus-neutralizing antibodies with great affinity can optimally fight against infection. Worldwide, over 120 novel vaccine candidates, including live-attenuated, inactivated, viral-vectored nonreplicating and replicating, peptide- and protein-based, and nucleic acid-based approaches are in the process of preclinical and clinical trials (phase 1-4). In addition to comprehensive safety assessments and immune responses, precise clinical management is also important for trials of vaccines. The recent emergence of different variants of SARS-CoV-2 is becoming a new threat for the world and a challenge for scientists to introduce the most influential vaccine against COVID-19. The possibility of natural and vaccine-induced immunity in variants finds it necessary to establish next-generation vaccines, which generate general neutralization against existing and future variants. Here, we summarize the cellular and humoral responses of SARS-CoV-2, current progress in vaccination development, the antibody titer response of available phase 4 vaccinations in vaccinated populations of different countries worldwide, and the success and challenges ahead of vaccine development.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biochemistry, Riphah International University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.Department of Biochemistry, Riphah International University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.Department of Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan.Department of Zoology, Wildlife and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan.School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai'an 223003, China. Electronic address: bilaluaf@hyit.edu.cn.Department of Biochemistry, School of Applied Sciences, REVA University, Bangalore 560064, India.Departament of Exact Sciences and Technology, State University of Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Brazil.Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Monterrey 64849, Mexico. Electronic address: hafiz.iqbal@tec.mx.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34426120

Citation

Hussain, Asim, et al. "Current Scenario of COVID-19 Vaccinations and Immune Response Along With Antibody Titer in Vaccinated Inhabitants of Different Countries." International Immunopharmacology, vol. 99, 2021, p. 108050.
Hussain A, Rafeeq H, Asif HM, et al. Current scenario of COVID-19 vaccinations and immune response along with antibody titer in vaccinated inhabitants of different countries. Int Immunopharmacol. 2021;99:108050.
Hussain, A., Rafeeq, H., Asif, H. M., Shabbir, S., Bilal, M., Mulla, S. I., Franco, M., & Iqbal, H. M. N. (2021). Current scenario of COVID-19 vaccinations and immune response along with antibody titer in vaccinated inhabitants of different countries. International Immunopharmacology, 99, 108050. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108050
Hussain A, et al. Current Scenario of COVID-19 Vaccinations and Immune Response Along With Antibody Titer in Vaccinated Inhabitants of Different Countries. Int Immunopharmacol. 2021;99:108050. PubMed PMID: 34426120.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Current scenario of COVID-19 vaccinations and immune response along with antibody titer in vaccinated inhabitants of different countries. AU - Hussain,Asim, AU - Rafeeq,Hamza, AU - Asif,Hafiza Memoona, AU - Shabbir,Sumaira, AU - Bilal,Muhammad, AU - Mulla,Sikandar I, AU - Franco,Marcelo, AU - Iqbal,Hafiz M N, Y1 - 2021/08/06/ PY - 2021/05/25/received PY - 2021/07/08/revised PY - 2021/08/04/accepted PY - 2021/8/25/pubmed PY - 2021/9/23/medline PY - 2021/8/24/entrez KW - Adaptive immunity KW - Antibody titer KW - COVID-19 KW - Cellular immunity KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - SARS-CoV-2 variants KW - Vaccination SP - 108050 EP - 108050 JF - International immunopharmacology JO - Int Immunopharmacol VL - 99 N2 - The COVID-19 pandemic challenges have been only partially addressed so far. The pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 is considered the combination of severe and high infectivity. Herdimmunity is attained when a critical proportion of the population is immune, providing the virus with fewer chances to spread locally. To overcome the rising tide of the COVID-19 pandemic, efficacious and safe vaccines providing defensive and long-lasting immunity responses are urgently needed.Vaccines that induce virus-neutralizing antibodies with great affinity can optimally fight against infection. Worldwide, over 120 novel vaccine candidates, including live-attenuated, inactivated, viral-vectored nonreplicating and replicating, peptide- and protein-based, and nucleic acid-based approaches are in the process of preclinical and clinical trials (phase 1-4). In addition to comprehensive safety assessments and immune responses, precise clinical management is also important for trials of vaccines. The recent emergence of different variants of SARS-CoV-2 is becoming a new threat for the world and a challenge for scientists to introduce the most influential vaccine against COVID-19. The possibility of natural and vaccine-induced immunity in variants finds it necessary to establish next-generation vaccines, which generate general neutralization against existing and future variants. Here, we summarize the cellular and humoral responses of SARS-CoV-2, current progress in vaccination development, the antibody titer response of available phase 4 vaccinations in vaccinated populations of different countries worldwide, and the success and challenges ahead of vaccine development. SN - 1878-1705 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34426120/Current_scenario_of_COVID_19_vaccinations_and_immune_response_along_with_antibody_titer_in_vaccinated_inhabitants_of_different_countries_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1567-5769(21)00686-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -