Black Garlic and Its Bioactive Compounds on Human Health Diseases: A Review.Molecules. 2021 Aug 19; 26(16)M
Black garlic (BG) is a form of aged garlic obtained from raw garlic (Allium sativum) via Millard reaction under high temperature (60-90 °C) and humidity (70-90%) for a period of time. Several studies reported higher contents of water-soluble antioxidants compounds (S-allyl cysteine, S-allyl-mercapto cysteine), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, organosulfur compounds, polyphenol, volatile compounds, and products of other Millard reactions compared to fresh garlic after the thermal processing. Recent studies have demonstrated that BG and its bioactive compounds possess a wide range of biological activities and pharmacological properties that preserve and show better efficacy in preventing different types of diseases. Most of these benefits can be attributed to its anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-obesity, hepatoprotection, hypolipidemia, anti-cancer, anti-allergy, immunomodulation, nephroprotection, cardiovascular protection, and neuroprotection. Substantial studies have been conducted on BG and its components against different common human diseases in the last few decades. Still, a lot of research is ongoing to find out the therapeutic effects of BG. Thus, in this review, we summarized the pre-clinical and clinical studies of BG and its bioactive compounds on human health along with diverse bioactivity, a related mode of action, and also future challenges.