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Designing Nutritionally Adequate and Climate-Friendly Diets for Omnivorous, Pescatarian, Vegetarian and Vegan Adolescents in Sweden Using Linear Optimization.
Nutrients. 2021 Jul 22; 13(8)N

Abstract

Low-carbon diets can counteract climate change and promote health if they are nutritionally adequate, affordable and culturally acceptable. This study aimed at developing sustainable diets and to compare these with the EAT-Lancet diet. The Swedish national dietary survey Riksmaten Adolescents 2016-2017 was used as the baseline. Diets were optimized using linear programming for four dietary patterns: omnivores, pescatarians, vegetarians and vegans. The deviation from the baseline Riksmaten diet was minimized for all optimized diets while fulfilling nutrient and climate footprint constraints. Constraining the diet-related carbon dioxide equivalents of omnivores to 1.57 kg/day resulted in a diet associated with a reduction of meat, dairy products, and processed foods and an increase in potatoes, pulses, eggs and seafood. Climate-friendly, nutritionally adequate diets for pescatarians, vegetarians and vegans contained fewer foods and included considerable amounts of fortified dairy and meat substitutes. The optimized diets did not align very well with the food-group pattern of the EAT-Lancet diet. These findings suggest how to design future diets that are climate-friendly, nutritionally adequate, affordable, and culturally acceptable for Swedish adolescents with different dietary patterns. The discrepancies with the EAT diet indicate that the cultural dietary context is likely to play an important role in characterizing sustainable diets for specific populations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, 113 65 Stockholm, Sweden.Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, 113 65 Stockholm, Sweden. Centre for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Region Stockholm, 113 65 Stockholm, Sweden.The Swedish Food Agency, 751 26 Uppsala, Sweden. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University, 74076 Heilbronn, Germany. Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, 1165 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34444667

Citation

Eustachio Colombo, Patricia, et al. "Designing Nutritionally Adequate and Climate-Friendly Diets for Omnivorous, Pescatarian, Vegetarian and Vegan Adolescents in Sweden Using Linear Optimization." Nutrients, vol. 13, no. 8, 2021.
Eustachio Colombo P, Elinder LS, Lindroos AK, et al. Designing Nutritionally Adequate and Climate-Friendly Diets for Omnivorous, Pescatarian, Vegetarian and Vegan Adolescents in Sweden Using Linear Optimization. Nutrients. 2021;13(8).
Eustachio Colombo, P., Elinder, L. S., Lindroos, A. K., & Parlesak, A. (2021). Designing Nutritionally Adequate and Climate-Friendly Diets for Omnivorous, Pescatarian, Vegetarian and Vegan Adolescents in Sweden Using Linear Optimization. Nutrients, 13(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082507
Eustachio Colombo P, et al. Designing Nutritionally Adequate and Climate-Friendly Diets for Omnivorous, Pescatarian, Vegetarian and Vegan Adolescents in Sweden Using Linear Optimization. Nutrients. 2021 Jul 22;13(8) PubMed PMID: 34444667.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Designing Nutritionally Adequate and Climate-Friendly Diets for Omnivorous, Pescatarian, Vegetarian and Vegan Adolescents in Sweden Using Linear Optimization. AU - Eustachio Colombo,Patricia, AU - Elinder,Liselotte Schäfer, AU - Lindroos,Anna Karin, AU - Parlesak,Alexandr, Y1 - 2021/07/22/ PY - 2021/06/09/received PY - 2021/07/14/revised PY - 2021/07/20/accepted PY - 2021/8/27/entrez PY - 2021/8/28/pubmed PY - 2021/9/24/medline KW - Paris agreement KW - alternative diets KW - greenhouse gas emission KW - linear programming KW - nutrition KW - planetary health KW - sustainability JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 13 IS - 8 N2 - Low-carbon diets can counteract climate change and promote health if they are nutritionally adequate, affordable and culturally acceptable. This study aimed at developing sustainable diets and to compare these with the EAT-Lancet diet. The Swedish national dietary survey Riksmaten Adolescents 2016-2017 was used as the baseline. Diets were optimized using linear programming for four dietary patterns: omnivores, pescatarians, vegetarians and vegans. The deviation from the baseline Riksmaten diet was minimized for all optimized diets while fulfilling nutrient and climate footprint constraints. Constraining the diet-related carbon dioxide equivalents of omnivores to 1.57 kg/day resulted in a diet associated with a reduction of meat, dairy products, and processed foods and an increase in potatoes, pulses, eggs and seafood. Climate-friendly, nutritionally adequate diets for pescatarians, vegetarians and vegans contained fewer foods and included considerable amounts of fortified dairy and meat substitutes. The optimized diets did not align very well with the food-group pattern of the EAT-Lancet diet. These findings suggest how to design future diets that are climate-friendly, nutritionally adequate, affordable, and culturally acceptable for Swedish adolescents with different dietary patterns. The discrepancies with the EAT diet indicate that the cultural dietary context is likely to play an important role in characterizing sustainable diets for specific populations. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34444667/Designing_Nutritionally_Adequate_and_Climate_Friendly_Diets_for_Omnivorous_Pescatarian_Vegetarian_and_Vegan_Adolescents_in_Sweden_Using_Linear_Optimization_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu13082507 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -