Risk Assessment of Ozone Fumigation Under Vacuum to Control Potential Infestation of Coffee Berry Borer and Coffee Leaf Rust in Green Coffee Beans Imported Into Hawaii.J Econ Entomol. 2021 12 06; 114(6):2277-2289.JE
Studies were conducted with ozone gas fumigation under vacuum as a methyl bromide alternative against life stages of coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and the urediniospores of coffee leaf rust (CLR), Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley & Broome (Basidiomycota: Pucciniales) in green coffee, Coffea spp. L. Fumigation with 10,000 ppm O3 gas under -25.4 mm Hg vacuum1 at 13.0 ± 3.0°C for 6.0 h killed all CBB larvae, pupae, and adults, but did not kill all CBB eggs (~15% survival). Mortality of CLR urediniospores was 100% within the first hour of the 6-h fumigation. Ozone fumigation had no adverse effects on coffee quality. Results indicated that CBB adult hitchhikers may be the only target life stage of quarantine concern, and additional studies focused on this stage. CBB adult survival and reproduction decreased significantly at moisture contents ≤20%, and F1 generation survival did not occur in green coffee at moisture contents ≤15%. As the international standard for green coffee moisture content is 9-12%, adult CBB should not survive or reproduce in exported dry green coffee. Standard industry processing of harvested coffee cherries to the green coffee stage using either mechanical- or sun-drying eliminated CBB infestations from the field. A systems approach is recommended for exporting green coffee to control CBB and CLR that includes eliminating CBB life stages with standard processing methods, reducing moisture content to 9-12% to prevent egg deposition, survival or reproduction, and O3 fumigation to ensure quarantine security against potential CBB adult hitchhikers.