Characterizing rhizosphere microbiota of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from pre-sowing to post-harvest of crop under field conditions.Sci Rep. 2021 08 31; 11(1):17457.SR
The rhizosphere, a narrow zone of soil near plant roots, is a hot spot for microbial activity. Rhizosphere microbiota directly or indirectly benefit plants by supplementing nutrients, producing beneficial chemicals, or suppressing pathogens. Plants attract and modulate bacteria within the rhizosphere by releasing exudates. Plants also tend to select the rhizosphere microbiota based on their needs; a phenomenon termed as "rhizosphere effect". In this study, we characterized the rhizosphere microbiota of peanut plants across the crop development cycle from pre-sowing of seeds to post-harvest of crop under field conditions. The rhizosphere and bulk soil samples from different crop developmental stages were also compared. The composition of bulk soil microbiota resembled microbiota of pre-sowing and post-harvest soil and was markedly different from rhizosphere soil samples. Rhizosphere samples were enriched with multiple organisms mostly from the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidota phyla. Differences in diversity were observed among the rhizosphere samples but not in bulk soil across different crop development stages. Pseudomonas_M indica was highly enriched during the germination of seeds. Furthermore, Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) bacteria like Bacillus were enriched during the middle stages of crop development but there was a decline in PGP organisms in the matured crop stage. We also observed a significant association of pH and Electrical Conductivity (EC) with the profiles of microbial community. Overall, this study portrayed the changes in rhizosphere microbiota of peanut during different developmental stages of crop and may help to design stage specific bio-strategies such as bio-fertilizer to improve crop yield.