Levels of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products and Glyoxalase-1 in the Total Circulating Extracellular Vesicles from Mild Cognitive Impairment and Different Stages of Alzheimer's Disease Patients.J Alzheimers Dis. 2021; 84(1):227-237.JA
Growing evidence supports that receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and glyoxalase-1 (GLO-1) are implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanovesicles secreted by almost all cell types, contribute to cellular communication, and are implicated in AD pathology. Recently, EVs are considered as promising tools to identify reliable biomarkers in AD.
The aim of our study was to determine the levels of RAGE and GLO-1 in circulating EVs from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients and to analyze their correlation with the clinical Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores. We have studied the possibility that neuronal cells could release and transfer GLO-1 through EVs.
RAGE and GLO-1 levels were measured in circulating EVs, respectively, by Luminex assay and western blot. Released-EVs from SK-N-SH neuronal cells were isolated and GLO-1 levels were determined by western blot.
Our data showed higher levels of RAGE in EVs from late AD patients while GLO-1 levels in EVs from early AD were lower as compared to control and MCI patients. Interestingly, levels of RAGE and GLO-1 in EVs were correlated with the cognitive scores regardless of age. For the first time, we demonstrated that GLO-1 was released from neuronal cells through EVs.
Although more samples will be needed, our preliminary results support the use of peripheral EVs cargo as new tools for the discovery of peripheral AD biomarkers.