Synthesis of polystyrene-based hyper-cross-linked polymers for Cd(II) ions removal from aqueous solutions: Experimental and RSM modeling.J Hazard Mater. 2021 08 15; 416:125923.JH
The hyper-cross-linked polymers (HCPs) based on the polystyrene was synthesized during the Friedel-Craft reaction in various situations. The HCPs synthesis were carried out in various operating conditions including reaction time in the range of 3-23 h, the ratio of cross-linker to monomer in range of 1-5 at temperature of 80 ℃. In addition, the cadmium adsorption process was carried out at a temperature in the range of 25-85 ℃ and initial cadmium concentration in the range of 10-100 mg/L. The response surface methodology (RSM) has been applied for optimizing the process using synthesis and adsorption parameters. The optimized synthesis conditions were obtained 3.32, 11.26 h, 80 ℃, in ratio, synthesis time, and temperature, respectively. Also, the optimized adsorption conditions were obtained 80 mg/L and 35 ℃, initial cadmium ion concentration, and temperature, respectively. The surface area and thermal stability were obtained at 853.89 m2/g and 450 ℃, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity and removal efficiency had been obtained 950 mg/g and 92% at a temperature of 20 ℃, after 80 min, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity and removal efficiency were observed in the initial concentration of 120 mg/L and 10 mg/L, respectively. The adsorption process behavior was surveyed using isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic models. The isotherm results showed that the adsorption of cadmium by HCPs is multi-layer and heterogeneous. The thermodynamic parameters showed that the process is exothermic and spontaneous. Finally, the kinetic results showed that the process occurred physically and slowly as the temperature raised.