Effects of iron-modified biochar with S-rich and Si-rich feedstocks on Cd immobilization in the soil-rice system.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2021 Dec 01; 225:112764.EE
Fe-modified biochar has been shown to have high sorption ability for cadmium (Cd), while Cd immobilization effects of Fe-modified biochars with Si-rich and S-rich feedstocks have been rarely addressed. To explore the effects of Fe-modified Si-rich and S-rich biochars on Cd translocation in the soil-rice system, a pot experiment was carried out with an acidic Cd-contaminated sandy loam paddy from central South China and a late season rice cultivate during July to November 2018. Rice straw and rice husk were chosen as Si-rich feedstocks, and rape straw was applied as S-rich feedstock, these feedstocks were further collected and pyrolyzed at 450 °C. Pristine and Fe-impregnated rice straw (BRS/BRS-Fe), rice husk (BRH/BRH-Fe) and rape straw (BRE/BRE-Fe) biochars were applied at 0 and 10 t/ha, respectively. The reductions in Cd concentrations in rice grains were 23.8%, 22.3% and 46.1% with treatments of BRE, BRS and BRH, respectively, compared to the control. Compared to other pristine biochars, BRH is more effective in Cd remediation in paddy soil. For Fe-modified biochars, BRE-Fe achieved the highest reductions in Cd concentrations in rice grains with 46.7% and 30.1%, compared with the control and BRE, respectively. BRE-Fe decreased Cd remobilization from leaves to grains. Only BRE-Fe enhanced the formation and Cd sorption capacity of iron plaque. BRS-Fe and BRH-Fe enhanced Fe content in rice plants, which might induce the reduction in iron plaque formation. Fe and S-contained complexes contents increased in the contaminated pristine biochar particles, but reduced in the contaminated BRE-Fe particles. Therefore, Fe modification could not enhance Cd immobilization effect of Si-rich biochar, while Fe modified S-rich biochar has promising potential for Cd remediation with enhancement in iron plaque formation and Cd fixation in rice leaves.