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Effectiveness of mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine among U.S. Health Care Personnel.
N Engl J Med. 2021 Sep 22 [Online ahead of print]NEJM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The prioritization of U.S. health care personnel for early receipt of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines against severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), allowed for the evaluation of the effectiveness of these new vaccines in a real-world setting.

METHODS

We conducted a test-negative case-control study involving health care personnel across 25 U.S. states. Cases were defined on the basis of a positive polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) or antigen-based test for SARS-CoV-2 and at least one Covid-19-like symptom. Controls were defined on the basis of a negative PCR test for SARS-CoV-2, regardless of symptoms, and were matched to cases according to the week of the test date and site. Using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for age, race and ethnic group, underlying conditions, and exposures to persons with Covid-19, we estimated vaccine effectiveness for partial vaccination (assessed 14 days after receipt of the first dose through 6 days after receipt of the second dose) and complete vaccination (assessed ≥7 days after receipt of the second dose).

RESULTS

The study included 1482 case participants and 3449 control participants. Vaccine effectiveness for partial vaccination was 77.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70.9 to 82.7) with the BNT162b2 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) and 88.9% (95% CI, 78.7 to 94.2) with the mRNA-1273 vaccine (Moderna); for complete vaccination, vaccine effectiveness was 88.8% (95% CI, 84.6 to 91.8) and 96.3% (95% CI, 91.3 to 98.4), respectively. Vaccine effectiveness was similar in subgroups defined according to age (<50 years or ≥50 years), race and ethnic group, presence of underlying conditions, and level of patient contact. Estimates of vaccine effectiveness were lower during weeks 9 through 14 than during weeks 3 through 8 after receipt of the second dose, but confidence intervals overlapped widely.

CONCLUSIONS

The BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines were highly effective under real-world conditions in preventing symptomatic Covid-19 in health care personnel, including those at risk for severe Covid-19 and those in racial and ethnic groups that have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

Authors+Show Affiliations

From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).From the Covid-19 Response Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.P., R.G., K.E.F.-D., J.L.F., M.F., N.C., S.S.M., J.R.V., S.J.S.), and the Georgia Emerging Infections Program and Emory University School of Medicine (S.K.F.) - both in Atlanta; the University of Iowa, Iowa City (N.M.M., D.A.T., K.K.H., B.F.); Olive View and University of California Los Angeles Ronald Reagan Medical Centers, Los Angeles (D.A.T., A.K., G.J.M.), the University of California San Francisco, Fresno (B.C.), and the California Emerging Infections Program, Oakland (J.L.); Baystate Medical Center, Springfield (H.A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (P.C.H.), and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (J.P.H.) - all in Massachusetts; Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami (L.C.L.); University Medical Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans (S.C.L.); Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia (E.K.); Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City (M.T.S.); the University of Chicago (D.G.B.) and the Department of Medicine, Rush University Medical Center (M.Y.L.) - both in Chicago; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (U.N.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.A.S.); the University of Washington, Seattle (D.J.H.); Valleywise Health Medical Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix (F.L.); the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver (D.B.); the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven (M.B.); the Maryland Department of Health (K.M.-G.) and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (A.K.D.) - both in Baltimore; the Minnesota Emerging Infections Program, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul (S.L.); the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (E.C.P.), and the New Mexico Emerging Infections Program, Santa Fe (E.C.P.); the University of Rochester Medical Center and the New York State-Rochester Emerging Infections Program, Rochester (G.D.); the Public Health Division, Oregon Health Authority, Portland (R.P.); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (T.M.M.); the Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (D.J.A.); the University of Utah Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City (J.M.); Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Louis (J.H.K.); the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison (N.S.); and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage (R.S.).No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34551224

Citation

Pilishvili, Tamara, et al. "Effectiveness of mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine Among U.S. Health Care Personnel." The New England Journal of Medicine, 2021.
Pilishvili T, Gierke R, Fleming-Dutra KE, et al. Effectiveness of mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine among U.S. Health Care Personnel. N Engl J Med. 2021.
Pilishvili, T., Gierke, R., Fleming-Dutra, K. E., Farrar, J. L., Mohr, N. M., Talan, D. A., Krishnadasan, A., Harland, K. K., Smithline, H. A., Hou, P. C., Lee, L. C., Lim, S. C., Moran, G. J., Krebs, E., Steele, M. T., Beiser, D. G., Faine, B., Haran, J. P., Nandi, U., ... Schrag, S. J. (2021). Effectiveness of mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine among U.S. Health Care Personnel. The New England Journal of Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2106599
Pilishvili T, et al. Effectiveness of mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine Among U.S. Health Care Personnel. N Engl J Med. 2021 Sep 22; PubMed PMID: 34551224.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effectiveness of mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine among U.S. Health Care Personnel. AU - Pilishvili,Tamara, AU - Gierke,Ryan, AU - Fleming-Dutra,Katherine E, AU - Farrar,Jennifer L, AU - Mohr,Nicholas M, AU - Talan,David A, AU - Krishnadasan,Anusha, AU - Harland,Karisa K, AU - Smithline,Howard A, AU - Hou,Peter C, AU - Lee,Lilly C, AU - Lim,Stephen C, AU - Moran,Gregory J, AU - Krebs,Elizabeth, AU - Steele,Mark T, AU - Beiser,David G, AU - Faine,Brett, AU - Haran,John P, AU - Nandi,Utsav, AU - Schrading,Walter A, AU - Chinnock,Brian, AU - Henning,Daniel J, AU - Lovecchio,Frank, AU - Lee,Jane, AU - Barter,Devra, AU - Brackney,Monica, AU - Fridkin,Scott K, AU - Marceaux-Galli,Kaytlynn, AU - Lim,Sarah, AU - Phipps,Erin C, AU - Dumyati,Ghinwa, AU - Pierce,Rebecca, AU - Markus,Tiffanie M, AU - Anderson,Deverick J, AU - Debes,Amanda K, AU - Lin,Michael Y, AU - Mayer,Jeanmarie, AU - Kwon,Jennie H, AU - Safdar,Nasia, AU - Fischer,Marc, AU - Singleton,Rosalyn, AU - Chea,Nora, AU - Magill,Shelley S, AU - Verani,Jennifer R, AU - Schrag,Stephanie J, AU - ,, Y1 - 2021/09/22/ PY - 2021/9/22/entrez PY - 2021/9/23/pubmed PY - 2021/9/23/medline JF - The New England journal of medicine JO - N Engl J Med N2 - BACKGROUND: The prioritization of U.S. health care personnel for early receipt of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines against severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), allowed for the evaluation of the effectiveness of these new vaccines in a real-world setting. METHODS: We conducted a test-negative case-control study involving health care personnel across 25 U.S. states. Cases were defined on the basis of a positive polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) or antigen-based test for SARS-CoV-2 and at least one Covid-19-like symptom. Controls were defined on the basis of a negative PCR test for SARS-CoV-2, regardless of symptoms, and were matched to cases according to the week of the test date and site. Using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for age, race and ethnic group, underlying conditions, and exposures to persons with Covid-19, we estimated vaccine effectiveness for partial vaccination (assessed 14 days after receipt of the first dose through 6 days after receipt of the second dose) and complete vaccination (assessed ≥7 days after receipt of the second dose). RESULTS: The study included 1482 case participants and 3449 control participants. Vaccine effectiveness for partial vaccination was 77.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70.9 to 82.7) with the BNT162b2 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) and 88.9% (95% CI, 78.7 to 94.2) with the mRNA-1273 vaccine (Moderna); for complete vaccination, vaccine effectiveness was 88.8% (95% CI, 84.6 to 91.8) and 96.3% (95% CI, 91.3 to 98.4), respectively. Vaccine effectiveness was similar in subgroups defined according to age (<50 years or ≥50 years), race and ethnic group, presence of underlying conditions, and level of patient contact. Estimates of vaccine effectiveness were lower during weeks 9 through 14 than during weeks 3 through 8 after receipt of the second dose, but confidence intervals overlapped widely. CONCLUSIONS: The BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines were highly effective under real-world conditions in preventing symptomatic Covid-19 in health care personnel, including those at risk for severe Covid-19 and those in racial and ethnic groups that have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.). SN - 1533-4406 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34551224/full_citation L2 - https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa2106599?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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