Vicariance and dispersal events inferred from mitochondrial genomes and nuclear genes (18S, 28S) shaped global Cryptocercus distributions.Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2022 01; 166:107318.MP
Cryptocercus Scudder, a genus of wingless, subsocial cockroaches, has low vagility but exhibits a disjunct distribution in eastern and western North America, and in China, South Korea and the Russian Far East. This distribution provides an ideal model for testing hypotheses of vicariance through plate tectonics or other natural barriers versus dispersal across oceans or other natural barriers. We sequenced 45 samples of Cryptocercus to resolve phylogenetic relationships among members of the genus worldwide. We identified four types of tRNA rearrangements among samples from the Qin-Daba Mountains. Our maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic trees, based on mitochondrial genomes and nuclear genes (18S, 28S), strongly supported six major lineages of Cryptocercus, which displayed a clear geographical distribution pattern. We used Bayesian molecular dating to estimate the evolutionary timescale of the genus, and reconstructed Cryptocercus ancestral ranges using statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis (S-DIVA) in RASP. Two dispersal events and six vicariance events for Cryptocercus were inferred with high support. The initial vicariance event occurred between American and Asian lineages at 80.5 Ma (95% credibility interval: 60.0-104.7 Ma), followed by one vicariance event within the American lineage 43.8 Ma (95% CI: 32.0-57.5 Ma), and two dispersal 31.9 Ma (95% CI: 25.8-39.5 Ma), 21.7 Ma (95% CI: 17.3-27.1 Ma) plus four vicariance events c. 29.3 Ma, 27.2 Ma, 24.8 Ma and 16.7 Ma within the Asian lineage. Our analyses provide evidence that both vicariance and dispersal have played important roles in shaping the distribution and diversity of these woodroaches.