Evaluation of Urinary Clusterin and Cystatin B as Biomarkers for Renal Injury in Dogs Envenomated by the European Adder (Vipera berus).Top Companion Anim Med. 2022 Jan-Feb; 46:100586.TC
Dogs are commonly bitten by the European adder (Vipera berus) but studies investigating the effects of envenomation are limited. Snakebite-related kidney injury is reported in dogs but diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) might be limited by the insensitivity of routinely used renal function biomarkers. The aim of this study was to evaluate novel biomarkers of renal injury (urinary cystatin B and urinary clusterin) and biomarkers of renal function (serum creatinine and serum symmetric dimethylarginine), and urine protein to creatinine ratio in dogs envenomated by V. berus. Biomarkers were measured at presentation (T1), 12 hours (T2), 24 hours (T3), 36 hours (T4), and 14 days (T5) after snakebite and compared to a group of healthy control dogs. A secondary aim was to investigate the association between biomarker concentrations and severity of clinical signs of envenomation using a snakebite severity score (SSS). Urinary cystatin B concentrations were significantly higher at all timepoints in envenomated dogs compared to controls (P < .010), except for T5 (P = .222). Absolute urinary clusterin concentrations were not significantly different to controls at any timepoint. Compared to controls, serum creatinine and serum symmetric dimethylarginine concentrations were significantly lower in envenomated dogs at T1-T4 (P < .036) and T2-T4 (P < .036), respectively. Urine protein to creatinine ratio was higher in envenomated dogs compared to controls at T2 and T3. Urinary cystatin B concentrations at T1 were correlated with SSS (Spearman's ρ = 0.690, P < .001). The increased urinary cystatin B concentrations observed in dogs envenomated by V. berus in comparison to controls may indicate renal tubular injury in these patients.