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mRNA vaccine-induced T cells respond identically to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern but differ in longevity and homing properties depending on prior infection status.
Elife. 2021 10 12; 10E

Abstract

While mRNA vaccines are proving highly efficacious against SARS-CoV-2, it is important to determine how booster doses and prior infection influence the immune defense they elicit, and whether they protect against variants. Focusing on the T cell response, we conducted a longitudinal study of infection-naïve and COVID-19 convalescent donors before vaccination and after their first and second vaccine doses, using a high-parameter CyTOF analysis to phenotype their SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells. Vaccine-elicited spike-specific T cells responded similarly to stimulation by spike epitopes from the ancestral, B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variant strains, both in terms of cell numbers and phenotypes. In infection-naïve individuals, the second dose boosted the quantity and altered the phenotypic properties of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells, while in convalescents the second dose changed neither. Spike-specific T cells from convalescent vaccinees differed strikingly from those of infection-naïve vaccinees, with phenotypic features suggesting superior long-term persistence and ability to home to the respiratory tract including the nasopharynx. These results provide reassurance that vaccine-elicited T cells respond robustly to emerging viral variants, confirm that convalescents may not need a second vaccine dose, and suggest that vaccinated convalescents may have more persistent nasopharynx-homing SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells compared to their infection-naïve counterparts.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department or Urology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, United States. Gladstone Institute of Virology, San Francisco, United States.Gladstone Institute of Virology, San Francisco, United States.Department or Urology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, United States. Gladstone Institute of Virology, San Francisco, United States.Department or Urology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, United States. Gladstone Institute of Virology, San Francisco, United States.University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, United States.Gladstone Institute of Virology, San Francisco, United States.Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, United States.Department or Urology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, United States. Gladstone Institute of Virology, San Francisco, United States.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34636722

Citation

Neidleman, Jason, et al. "MRNA Vaccine-induced T Cells Respond Identically to SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern but Differ in Longevity and Homing Properties Depending On Prior Infection Status." ELife, vol. 10, 2021.
Neidleman J, Luo X, McGregor M, et al. MRNA vaccine-induced T cells respond identically to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern but differ in longevity and homing properties depending on prior infection status. Elife. 2021;10.
Neidleman, J., Luo, X., McGregor, M., Xie, G., Murray, V., Greene, W. C., Lee, S. A., & Roan, N. R. (2021). MRNA vaccine-induced T cells respond identically to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern but differ in longevity and homing properties depending on prior infection status. ELife, 10. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.72619
Neidleman J, et al. MRNA Vaccine-induced T Cells Respond Identically to SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern but Differ in Longevity and Homing Properties Depending On Prior Infection Status. Elife. 2021 10 12;10 PubMed PMID: 34636722.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - mRNA vaccine-induced T cells respond identically to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern but differ in longevity and homing properties depending on prior infection status. AU - Neidleman,Jason, AU - Luo,Xiaoyu, AU - McGregor,Matthew, AU - Xie,Guorui, AU - Murray,Victoria, AU - Greene,Warner C, AU - Lee,Sulggi A, AU - Roan,Nadia R, Y1 - 2021/10/12/ PY - 2021/07/29/received PY - 2021/10/05/accepted PY - 2021/10/13/pubmed PY - 2021/10/29/medline PY - 2021/10/12/entrez KW - COVID-19 KW - CyTOF KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - antigen-specific T cells KW - human KW - immunology KW - infectious disease KW - inflammation KW - lymphocyte subsets KW - mRNA vaccine KW - microbiology JF - eLife JO - Elife VL - 10 N2 - While mRNA vaccines are proving highly efficacious against SARS-CoV-2, it is important to determine how booster doses and prior infection influence the immune defense they elicit, and whether they protect against variants. Focusing on the T cell response, we conducted a longitudinal study of infection-naïve and COVID-19 convalescent donors before vaccination and after their first and second vaccine doses, using a high-parameter CyTOF analysis to phenotype their SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells. Vaccine-elicited spike-specific T cells responded similarly to stimulation by spike epitopes from the ancestral, B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variant strains, both in terms of cell numbers and phenotypes. In infection-naïve individuals, the second dose boosted the quantity and altered the phenotypic properties of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells, while in convalescents the second dose changed neither. Spike-specific T cells from convalescent vaccinees differed strikingly from those of infection-naïve vaccinees, with phenotypic features suggesting superior long-term persistence and ability to home to the respiratory tract including the nasopharynx. These results provide reassurance that vaccine-elicited T cells respond robustly to emerging viral variants, confirm that convalescents may not need a second vaccine dose, and suggest that vaccinated convalescents may have more persistent nasopharynx-homing SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells compared to their infection-naïve counterparts. SN - 2050-084X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34636722/mRNA_vaccine_induced_T_cells_respond_identically_to_SARS_CoV_2_variants_of_concern_but_differ_in_longevity_and_homing_properties_depending_on_prior_infection_status_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.72619 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -