Biotic Supplements in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.J Ren Nutr. 2022 01; 32(1):10-21.JR
Gut flora imbalance characterizes patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although biotic supplementation has been proposed to lessen inflammation and oxidative stress and, thus, reduce the risk of progressive kidney damage and cardiovascular disease, the effects remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the therapeutic benefits of biotics in CKD.
PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials that evaluated any biotic (prebiotic, probiotic, synbiotics) supplements in patients with CKD (CKD, stage 3-4 to end-stage renal disease). Primary endpoints included changes in renal function, markers of inflammation, and oxidative stress. Secondary endpoints included changes in levels of uremic toxins and variations in lipid metabolism.
Twenty-three eligible studies included 842 participants. In a pooled-analysis, biotics did not change estimated glomerular filtration rate (mean difference [MD] = 0.08, P = .92) or serum albumin (MD = -0.01, P = .86), although prebiotics reduced serum creatinine (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.23, P = .009) and blood urea nitrogen (MD = -6.05, P < .00001). Biotics improved total antioxidative capacity (SMD = 0.37, P = .007) and malondialdehyde (SMD = -0.96, P = .006) and reduced the inflammatory marker interleukin-6 (SMD = -0.30, P = .01) although not C-reactive protein (SMD = -0.22, P = .20). Biotic intervention reduced some uremic toxins, including p-cresol sulfate (SMD = -2.18, P < .0001) and indoxyl sulfate (MD = -5.14, P = .0009), which decreased in dialysis-dependent patients. Another toxin, indole-3-acetic acid (MD = -0.22, P = .63), did not change. Lipids were unaffected by biotic intervention (total cholesterol: SMD = -0.01, P = .89; high-density lipoprotein: SMD = -0.08, P = .76; low-density lipoprotein: MD = 3.54, P = .28; triglyceride: MD = -2.26, P = .58).
The results highlight the favorable influence of biotics on circulating markers of creatinine, oxidant stress (malondialdehyde, total antioxidative capacity), inflammation (interleukin-6), and uremic toxins (p-cresol sulfate) in patients with CKD. Biotics did not affect estimated glomerular filtration rate, albumin, indole-3-acetic acid, or lipids in either predialysis or dialysis patients.