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Prevalence and Management of Alkyl-Methoxypyrazines in a Changing Climate: Viticultural and Oenological Considerations.
Biomolecules. 2021 10 15; 11(10)B

Abstract

Alkyl-methoxypyrazines are an important class of odor-active molecules that contribute green, 'unripe' characters to wine and are considered undesirable in most wine styles. They are naturally occurring grape metabolites in many cultivars, but can also be derived from some Coccinellidae species when these 'ladybugs' are inadvertently introduced into the must during harvesting operations. The projected impacts of climate change are discussed, and we conclude that these include an altered alkyl-methoxypyrazine composition in grapes and wines in many wine regions. Thus, a careful consideration of how to manage them in both the vineyard and winery is important and timely. This review brings together the relevant literatures on viticultural and oenological interventions aimed at mitigating alkyl-methoxypyrazine loads, and makes recommendations on their management with an aim to maintaining wine quality under a changing and challenging climate.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada. Department of Psychology, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada. Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada. National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia. Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD 4556, Australia.Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada. Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada.Department of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2133, USA.Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34680154

Citation

Pickering, Gary J., et al. "Prevalence and Management of Alkyl-Methoxypyrazines in a Changing Climate: Viticultural and Oenological Considerations." Biomolecules, vol. 11, no. 10, 2021.
Pickering GJ, Willwerth J, Botezatu A, et al. Prevalence and Management of Alkyl-Methoxypyrazines in a Changing Climate: Viticultural and Oenological Considerations. Biomolecules. 2021;11(10).
Pickering, G. J., Willwerth, J., Botezatu, A., & Thibodeau, M. (2021). Prevalence and Management of Alkyl-Methoxypyrazines in a Changing Climate: Viticultural and Oenological Considerations. Biomolecules, 11(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11101521
Pickering GJ, et al. Prevalence and Management of Alkyl-Methoxypyrazines in a Changing Climate: Viticultural and Oenological Considerations. Biomolecules. 2021 10 15;11(10) PubMed PMID: 34680154.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Prevalence and Management of Alkyl-Methoxypyrazines in a Changing Climate: Viticultural and Oenological Considerations. AU - Pickering,Gary J, AU - Willwerth,Jim, AU - Botezatu,Andreea, AU - Thibodeau,Margaret, Y1 - 2021/10/15/ PY - 2021/09/14/received PY - 2021/10/02/revised PY - 2021/10/07/accepted PY - 2021/10/23/entrez PY - 2021/10/24/pubmed PY - 2022/1/21/medline KW - climate adaptation KW - climate change KW - grape secondary metabolites KW - ladybug taint KW - methoxypyrazines KW - wine JF - Biomolecules JO - Biomolecules VL - 11 IS - 10 N2 - Alkyl-methoxypyrazines are an important class of odor-active molecules that contribute green, 'unripe' characters to wine and are considered undesirable in most wine styles. They are naturally occurring grape metabolites in many cultivars, but can also be derived from some Coccinellidae species when these 'ladybugs' are inadvertently introduced into the must during harvesting operations. The projected impacts of climate change are discussed, and we conclude that these include an altered alkyl-methoxypyrazine composition in grapes and wines in many wine regions. Thus, a careful consideration of how to manage them in both the vineyard and winery is important and timely. This review brings together the relevant literatures on viticultural and oenological interventions aimed at mitigating alkyl-methoxypyrazine loads, and makes recommendations on their management with an aim to maintaining wine quality under a changing and challenging climate. SN - 2218-273X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34680154/Prevalence_and_Management_of_Alkyl_Methoxypyrazines_in_a_Changing_Climate:_Viticultural_and_Oenological_Considerations_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -