Efficacy and safety of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers for IgA nephropathy in children.Pediatr Nephrol. 2022 Mar; 37(3):499-508.PN
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the most prevalent primary glomerulopathies in children. There are various studies investigating the efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) in adults with IgAN. However, only few studies evaluated the efficacy of these medications in pediatric patients.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ACEI/ARB in children with IgAN.
Databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched between the 1st of April and 20th of July of 2021 using the keywords "IgA Nephropathy," "Berger's Disease," "Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors," "Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists," "Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers," and similar entry terms collected from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH).
STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA
Observational studies (case series, case-control, cohort, and cross-sectional) and clinical trials with descriptions of pediatric patients (under 19 years old) with histopathological diagnosis of IgA nephropathy and who received ACEI and/or ARB.
PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS
Pediatric patients (under 19 years old) with histopathological diagnosis of IgA nephropathy and who received ACEI and/or ARB.
For quality assessment, the Risk of Bias 2 tool (RoB 2), the Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies of Interventions tool (ROBINS-I), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) quality assessment tool, and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) were used.
After recovering 1,471 studies, only eight, published between 2003 and 2019, met the eligibility criteria and were included in this systematic review. Of the 737 included children in the studies, 202 (25.8%) used ACEI/ARB and were compared with placebo and other therapy regimens. Of the seven studies that evaluated proteinuria, six reported an efficacy of ACEI/ARB in reducing this marker. ACEI/ARB also showed a possible effect in reducing hematuria and oxidative stress. The most common side effect was dizziness.
The number of studies about the treatment with ACEI/ARB in children with IgAN is scarce. In addition, the studies are very heterogeneous. There are few studies that compared ACEI/ARB with placebo.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF KEY FINDINGS
The use of ACEI and/or ARB appears to be safe and to reduce proteinuria in pediatric patients with IgAN. Nonetheless, further randomized controlled trials, with greater methodological rigor and longer follow-up time, are required to establish the efficacy and safety of this therapy in this population.
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER
The protocol of this systematic literature review was registered in PROSPERO under the number CRD42021245375, and in the OSF registries (https://osf.io/qft4z/) with the registration https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/VADYR . A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.