Management of translocated and incarcerated intrauterine contraceptive devices.Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1986 Aug; 26(3):232-4.AN
Thirty-seven consecutive patients who reported with absent or snapped strings and failed attempts at removal of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) by hooks or curette were posted for hysteroscopy/laparotomy following a plain X-ray of the pelvis to exclude unrecognized spontaneous expulsion. Direct visualization of the endometrial cavity was invaluable in locating and removing IUCDs, particularly the embedded and fragmented ones. Translocated medicated devices were associated with dense adhesions, suggesting the need for their prompt removal. There appears to be an increased risk of translocation in lactating women.