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The Small RNA MicC Downregulates hilD Translation To Control the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 Type III Secretion System in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.
J Bacteriol. 2022 01 18; 204(1):e0037821.JB

Abstract

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium invades the intestinal epithelium and induces inflammatory diarrhea using the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) type III secretion system (T3SS). Expression of the SPI1 T3SS is controlled by three AraC-like regulators, HilD, HilC, and RtsA, which form a feed-forward regulatory loop that leads to activation of hilA, encoding the main transcriptional regulator of the T3SS structural genes. This complex system is affected by numerous regulatory proteins and environmental signals, many of which act at the level of hilD mRNA translation or HilD protein function. Here, we show that the sRNA MicC blocks translation of the hilD mRNA by base pairing near the ribosome binding site. MicC does not induce degradation of the hilD message. Our data indicate that micC is transcriptionally activated by SlyA, and SlyA feeds into the SPI1 regulatory network solely through MicC. Transcription of micC is negatively regulated by the OmpR/EnvZ two-component system, but this regulation is dependent on SlyA. OmpR/EnvZ control SPI1 expression partially through MicC but also affect expression through other pathways, including an EnvZ-dependent, OmpR-independent mechanism. MicC-mediated regulation plays a role during infection, as evidenced by an SPI1 T3SS-dependent increase in Salmonella fitness in the intestine in the micC deletion mutant. These results further elucidate the complex regulatory network controlling SPI1 expression and add to the list of sRNAs that control this primary virulence factor. IMPORTANCE The Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) type III secretion system (T3SS) is the primary virulence factor required for causing intestinal disease and initiating systemic infection. The system is regulated in response to a large variety of environmental and physiological factors such that the T3SS is expressed at only the appropriate time and place in the host during infection. Here, we show how the sRNA MicC affects expression of the system. This work adds to our detailed mechanistic studies aimed at a complete understanding of the regulatory circuit.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaigngrid.35403.31, Urbana, Illinois, USA.Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaigngrid.35403.31, Urbana, Illinois, USA.Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaigngrid.35403.31, Urbana, Illinois, USA.Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaigngrid.35403.31, Urbana, Illinois, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34694902

Citation

Cakar, Fatih, et al. "The Small RNA MicC Downregulates hilD Translation to Control the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 Type III Secretion System in Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium." Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 204, no. 1, 2022, pp. e0037821.
Cakar F, Golubeva YA, Vanderpool CK, et al. The Small RNA MicC Downregulates hilD Translation To Control the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 Type III Secretion System in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 2022;204(1):e0037821.
Cakar, F., Golubeva, Y. A., Vanderpool, C. K., & Slauch, J. M. (2022). The Small RNA MicC Downregulates hilD Translation To Control the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 Type III Secretion System in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium. Journal of Bacteriology, 204(1), e0037821. https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.00378-21
Cakar F, et al. The Small RNA MicC Downregulates hilD Translation to Control the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 Type III Secretion System in Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 2022 01 18;204(1):e0037821. PubMed PMID: 34694902.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The Small RNA MicC Downregulates hilD Translation To Control the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 Type III Secretion System in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium. AU - Cakar,Fatih, AU - Golubeva,Yekaterina A, AU - Vanderpool,Carin K, AU - Slauch,James M, Y1 - 2021/10/25/ PY - 2021/10/26/pubmed PY - 2022/2/11/medline PY - 2021/10/25/entrez KW - EnvZ KW - MicC KW - OmpR KW - SPI1 KW - Salmonella KW - SlyA SP - e0037821 EP - e0037821 JF - Journal of bacteriology JO - J Bacteriol VL - 204 IS - 1 N2 - Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium invades the intestinal epithelium and induces inflammatory diarrhea using the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) type III secretion system (T3SS). Expression of the SPI1 T3SS is controlled by three AraC-like regulators, HilD, HilC, and RtsA, which form a feed-forward regulatory loop that leads to activation of hilA, encoding the main transcriptional regulator of the T3SS structural genes. This complex system is affected by numerous regulatory proteins and environmental signals, many of which act at the level of hilD mRNA translation or HilD protein function. Here, we show that the sRNA MicC blocks translation of the hilD mRNA by base pairing near the ribosome binding site. MicC does not induce degradation of the hilD message. Our data indicate that micC is transcriptionally activated by SlyA, and SlyA feeds into the SPI1 regulatory network solely through MicC. Transcription of micC is negatively regulated by the OmpR/EnvZ two-component system, but this regulation is dependent on SlyA. OmpR/EnvZ control SPI1 expression partially through MicC but also affect expression through other pathways, including an EnvZ-dependent, OmpR-independent mechanism. MicC-mediated regulation plays a role during infection, as evidenced by an SPI1 T3SS-dependent increase in Salmonella fitness in the intestine in the micC deletion mutant. These results further elucidate the complex regulatory network controlling SPI1 expression and add to the list of sRNAs that control this primary virulence factor. IMPORTANCE The Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) type III secretion system (T3SS) is the primary virulence factor required for causing intestinal disease and initiating systemic infection. The system is regulated in response to a large variety of environmental and physiological factors such that the T3SS is expressed at only the appropriate time and place in the host during infection. Here, we show how the sRNA MicC affects expression of the system. This work adds to our detailed mechanistic studies aimed at a complete understanding of the regulatory circuit. SN - 1098-5530 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34694902/The_Small_RNA_MicC_Downregulates_hilD_Translation_To_Control_the_Salmonella_Pathogenicity_Island_1_Type_III_Secretion_System_in_Salmonella_enterica_Serovar_Typhimurium_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -