Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Evaluation of Changes in Grams of Sugar Sold After the Implementation of the Seattle Sweetened Beverage Tax.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021 11 01; 4(11):e2132271.JN

Abstract

Importance

Adults and children routinely exceed recommended intake amounts of added sugars established by dietary guidelines. Taxes are used as a policy tool to reduce demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) given consumption-related adverse health outcomes but may induce substitution to other sources of added sugars.

Objective

To examine the extent to which changes in grams of sugar sold from taxed beverages may be offset by changes in grams of sugar sold from untaxed beverages, sweets, and stand-alone sugar after the implementation of the Seattle, Washington, Sweetened Beverage Tax (SBT) on January 1, 2018.

Design, Setting, and Participants

This study used difference-in-differences analyses to examine changes in grams of sugar sold from taxed and untaxed products in Seattle compared with Portland, Oregon, at year 1 and year 2 post tax. This study used Nielsen scanner data from supermarkets and mass merchandise as well as grocery, drug, convenience, and dollar stores on unit sales and measurements for beverage and food product universal product codes (UPCs) for each site for the pretax period (January 8-December 30, 2017) and the corresponding weeks in year 1 post tax (2018) and in year 2 post tax (2019). Nutritional analyses assessed grams of sugar for each UPC. The analytical balanced sample included 1326 taxed beverage UPCs, 239 untaxed beverage UPCs, 2054 sweets UPCs, and 81 stand-alone sugar UPCs. Statistical analysis was performed from January to August 2021.

Exposures

Implementation of the Seattle SBT.

Main Outcomes and Measures

Changes in grams of sugar sold from taxed beverages, untaxed beverages, sweets, and stand-alone sugar.

Results

At both year 1 and year 2 post tax in Seattle compared with Portland, grams of sugar sold from taxed beverages decreased 23% (year 2 posttax ratio of incidence rate ratios [RIRR] = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.80). Sugar sold from untaxed beverages increased at year 1 post tax by 4% (RIRR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.07) with no change at year 2 post tax. Sugar sold from sweets increased by 4% at both year 1 and year 2 post tax (year 2 posttax RIRR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03-1.06). There were no changes in stand-alone sugar sold.

Conclusions and Relevance

This study using difference-in-differences analysis found a net 19% reduction in grams of sugar sold from taxed SSBs at year 2 post tax after accounting for changes in sugar sold from untaxed beverages, sweets, and stand-alone sugar. These results suggest that SSB taxes may effectively yield permanent reductions in added sugars sold from SSBs in food stores.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Health Policy and Administration, University of Illinois Chicago School of Public Health, Chicago.Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois Chicago, Chicago.Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois Chicago College of Applied Health Sciences, Chicago.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34739061

Citation

Powell, Lisa M., et al. "Evaluation of Changes in Grams of Sugar Sold After the Implementation of the Seattle Sweetened Beverage Tax." JAMA Network Open, vol. 4, no. 11, 2021, pp. e2132271.
Powell LM, Leider J, Oddo VM. Evaluation of Changes in Grams of Sugar Sold After the Implementation of the Seattle Sweetened Beverage Tax. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(11):e2132271.
Powell, L. M., Leider, J., & Oddo, V. M. (2021). Evaluation of Changes in Grams of Sugar Sold After the Implementation of the Seattle Sweetened Beverage Tax. JAMA Network Open, 4(11), e2132271. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.32271
Powell LM, Leider J, Oddo VM. Evaluation of Changes in Grams of Sugar Sold After the Implementation of the Seattle Sweetened Beverage Tax. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 11 1;4(11):e2132271. PubMed PMID: 34739061.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluation of Changes in Grams of Sugar Sold After the Implementation of the Seattle Sweetened Beverage Tax. AU - Powell,Lisa M, AU - Leider,Julien, AU - Oddo,Vanessa M, Y1 - 2021/11/01/ PY - 2021/11/5/entrez PY - 2021/11/6/pubmed PY - 2021/11/6/medline SP - e2132271 EP - e2132271 JF - JAMA network open JO - JAMA Netw Open VL - 4 IS - 11 N2 - Importance: Adults and children routinely exceed recommended intake amounts of added sugars established by dietary guidelines. Taxes are used as a policy tool to reduce demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) given consumption-related adverse health outcomes but may induce substitution to other sources of added sugars. Objective: To examine the extent to which changes in grams of sugar sold from taxed beverages may be offset by changes in grams of sugar sold from untaxed beverages, sweets, and stand-alone sugar after the implementation of the Seattle, Washington, Sweetened Beverage Tax (SBT) on January 1, 2018. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study used difference-in-differences analyses to examine changes in grams of sugar sold from taxed and untaxed products in Seattle compared with Portland, Oregon, at year 1 and year 2 post tax. This study used Nielsen scanner data from supermarkets and mass merchandise as well as grocery, drug, convenience, and dollar stores on unit sales and measurements for beverage and food product universal product codes (UPCs) for each site for the pretax period (January 8-December 30, 2017) and the corresponding weeks in year 1 post tax (2018) and in year 2 post tax (2019). Nutritional analyses assessed grams of sugar for each UPC. The analytical balanced sample included 1326 taxed beverage UPCs, 239 untaxed beverage UPCs, 2054 sweets UPCs, and 81 stand-alone sugar UPCs. Statistical analysis was performed from January to August 2021. Exposures: Implementation of the Seattle SBT. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in grams of sugar sold from taxed beverages, untaxed beverages, sweets, and stand-alone sugar. Results: At both year 1 and year 2 post tax in Seattle compared with Portland, grams of sugar sold from taxed beverages decreased 23% (year 2 posttax ratio of incidence rate ratios [RIRR] = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.80). Sugar sold from untaxed beverages increased at year 1 post tax by 4% (RIRR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.07) with no change at year 2 post tax. Sugar sold from sweets increased by 4% at both year 1 and year 2 post tax (year 2 posttax RIRR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03-1.06). There were no changes in stand-alone sugar sold. Conclusions and Relevance: This study using difference-in-differences analysis found a net 19% reduction in grams of sugar sold from taxed SSBs at year 2 post tax after accounting for changes in sugar sold from untaxed beverages, sweets, and stand-alone sugar. These results suggest that SSB taxes may effectively yield permanent reductions in added sugars sold from SSBs in food stores. SN - 2574-3805 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34739061/Evaluation_of_Changes_in_Grams_of_Sugar_Sold_After_the_Implementation_of_the_Seattle_Sweetened_Beverage_Tax_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.32271 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -