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Anterior pituitary, sex hormones, and keratoconus: Beyond traditional targets.
Prog Retin Eye Res. 2021 Nov 02 [Online ahead of print]PR

Abstract

"The Diseases of the Horny-coat of The Eye", known today as keratoconus, is a progressive, multifactorial, non-inflammatory ectatic corneal disorder that is characterized by steepening (bulging) and thinning of the cornea, irregular astigmatism, myopia, and scarring that can cause devastating vision loss. The significant socioeconomic impact of the disease is immeasurable, as patients with keratoconus can have difficulties securing certain jobs or even joining the military. Despite the introduction of corneal crosslinking and improvements in scleral contact lens designs, corneal transplants remain the main surgical intervention for treating keratoconus refractory to medical therapy and visual rehabilitation. To-date, the etiology and pathogenesis of keratoconus remains unclear. Research studies have increased exponentially over the years, highlighting the clinical significance and international interest in this disease. Hormonal imbalances have been linked to keratoconus, both clinically and experimentally, with both sexes affected. However, it is unclear how (molecular/cellular signaling) or when (age/disease stage(s)) those hormones affect the keratoconic cornea. Previous studies have categorized the human cornea as an extragonadal tissue, showing modulation of the gonadotropins, specifically luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Studies herein provide new data (both in vitro and in vivo) to further delineate the role of hormones/gonadotropins in the keratoconus pathobiology, and propose the existence of a new axis named the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal-Corneal (HPAC) axis.

Authors+Show Affiliations

North Texas Eye Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3430 Camp Bowie Blvd, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA; Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA. Electronic address: Dimitrios.Karamichos@unthsc.edu.North Texas Eye Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3430 Camp Bowie Blvd, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA.North Texas Eye Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3430 Camp Bowie Blvd, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA.North Texas Eye Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3430 Camp Bowie Blvd, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA.University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 940 Stanton L Young, Oklahoma City, OK, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, Dean McGee Eye Institute, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.College of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 940 Stanton L Young, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA.Department of Ophthalmology, Dean McGee Eye Institute, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34740824

Citation

Karamichos, Dimitrios, et al. "Anterior Pituitary, Sex Hormones, and Keratoconus: Beyond Traditional Targets." Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 2021, p. 101016.
Karamichos D, Escandon P, Vasini B, et al. Anterior pituitary, sex hormones, and keratoconus: Beyond traditional targets. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2021.
Karamichos, D., Escandon, P., Vasini, B., Nicholas, S. E., Van, L., Dang, D. H., Cunningham, R. L., & Riaz, K. M. (2021). Anterior pituitary, sex hormones, and keratoconus: Beyond traditional targets. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 101016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2021.101016
Karamichos D, et al. Anterior Pituitary, Sex Hormones, and Keratoconus: Beyond Traditional Targets. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2021 Nov 2;101016. PubMed PMID: 34740824.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Anterior pituitary, sex hormones, and keratoconus: Beyond traditional targets. AU - Karamichos,Dimitrios, AU - Escandon,Paulina, AU - Vasini,Brenda, AU - Nicholas,Sarah E, AU - Van,Lyly, AU - Dang,Deanna H, AU - Cunningham,Rebecca L, AU - Riaz,Kamran M, Y1 - 2021/11/02/ PY - 2021/08/03/received PY - 2021/10/15/revised PY - 2021/10/18/accepted PY - 2021/11/7/pubmed PY - 2021/11/7/medline PY - 2021/11/6/entrez KW - Biomarkers KW - Eye KW - Gonadotropins KW - Keratoconus KW - Sex hormones SP - 101016 EP - 101016 JF - Progress in retinal and eye research JO - Prog Retin Eye Res N2 - "The Diseases of the Horny-coat of The Eye", known today as keratoconus, is a progressive, multifactorial, non-inflammatory ectatic corneal disorder that is characterized by steepening (bulging) and thinning of the cornea, irregular astigmatism, myopia, and scarring that can cause devastating vision loss. The significant socioeconomic impact of the disease is immeasurable, as patients with keratoconus can have difficulties securing certain jobs or even joining the military. Despite the introduction of corneal crosslinking and improvements in scleral contact lens designs, corneal transplants remain the main surgical intervention for treating keratoconus refractory to medical therapy and visual rehabilitation. To-date, the etiology and pathogenesis of keratoconus remains unclear. Research studies have increased exponentially over the years, highlighting the clinical significance and international interest in this disease. Hormonal imbalances have been linked to keratoconus, both clinically and experimentally, with both sexes affected. However, it is unclear how (molecular/cellular signaling) or when (age/disease stage(s)) those hormones affect the keratoconic cornea. Previous studies have categorized the human cornea as an extragonadal tissue, showing modulation of the gonadotropins, specifically luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Studies herein provide new data (both in vitro and in vivo) to further delineate the role of hormones/gonadotropins in the keratoconus pathobiology, and propose the existence of a new axis named the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal-Corneal (HPAC) axis. SN - 1873-1635 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34740824/Anterior_pituitary,_sex_hormones,_and_keratoconus:_Beyond_traditional_targets. L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1350-9462(21)00077-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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