Hypercalcemia of Malignancy.Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2021 12; 50(4):721-728.EM
Hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM) is considered an oncologic emergency associated with significant symptom burden and increased comorbid conditions and mortality. Underlying pathologic processes most often stimulate osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Although long-term control of HCM depends on effective management of the underlying cancer, temporizing management strategies for acute and/or symptomatic HCM include hydration and antiresorptive bone-modifying agents. Although most patients respond well to the antiresorptive therapies available, further investigation into other agents for those who are refractory to both bisphosphonates and denosumab is needed.