Evaluation of Humoral Immune Response after SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination Using Two Binding Antibody Assays and a Neutralizing Antibody Assay.Microbiol Spectr. 2021 12 22; 9(3):e0120221.MS
Multiple vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been developed and administered to mitigate the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We assessed the humoral response of BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 using Siemens SARS-CoV-2 IgG (sCOVG; cutoff of ≥1.0 U/ml), Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant (CoV-2 IgG II; cutoff of ≥50.0 AU/ml), and GenScript cPASS SARS-CoV-2 neutralization antibody detection kits (cPASS; cutoff of ≥30% inhibition). We collected 710 serum samples (174 samples after BNT162b2 and 536 samples after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19). Venous blood was obtained 3 weeks after first and second vaccinations. In both vaccines, sCOVG, CoV-2 IgG II, and cPASS showed a high seropositive rate (>95.7%) except for cPASS after the first vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (68.8%). Using sCOVG and CoV-2 IgG II, the ratios of antibody value (second/first) increased 10.6- and 11.4-fold in BNT162b2 (first 14.1, second 134.8 U/ml; first 1,416.2, second 14,326.4 AU/ml) and 2.3- and 2.0-fold in ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (first 4.0, second 9.1 U/ml; first 431.0, second 9,744.0 AU/ml). cPASS-positive results indicated a very high concordance rate with sCOVG and CoV-2 IgG II (>98%), whereas cPASS-negative results showed a relatively low concordance rate (range of 22.2% to 66.7%). To predict cPASS positivity, we suggested additional cutoffs for sCOVG and CoV-2 IgG II at 2.42 U/ml and 284 AU/ml, respectively. In conclusion, BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 evoked robust humoral responses. sCOVG and CoV-2 IgG II showed a very strong correlation with cPASS. sCOVG and CoV-2 IgG II may predict the presence of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE The Siemens severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG (sCOVG; Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., NY, USA) and Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant (CoV-2 IgG II; Abbott Laboratories, Sligo, Ireland), which are automated, quantitative SARS-CoV-2-binding antibody assays, have been recently launched. This study aimed to evaluate the humoral immune response of BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines using sCOVG and CoV-2 IgG II and compare the quantitative values with the results of the GenScript surrogate virus neutralization test (cPASS; GenScript, USA Inc., NJ, USA). Our findings demonstrated that both BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 elicited a robust humoral response after the first vaccination and further increased after the second vaccination. sCOVG and CoV-2 IgG II showed a strong correlation, and the concordance rates among sCOVG, CoV-2 IgG II, and cPASS were very high in the cPASS-positive results. The additional cutoff sCOVG and CoV-2 IgG II could predict the results of cPASS.