Combined amendment improves soil health and Brown rice quality in paddy soils moderately and highly Co-contaminated with Cd and As.Environ Pollut. 2022 Feb 15; 295:118590.EP
In situ remediation technology applied aims to not only decrease cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) uptake by rice but also improve soil health and rice quality in contaminated paddy soils. Here the effects of a combined amendment, consisting of limestone, iron powder, silicon fertilizer, and calcium-magnesium-phosphate fertilizer, with three application rates (0, 450, and 900 g m-2) on soil health, rice root system, and brown rice quality were compared in moderately versus highly Cd and As co-contaminated paddy fields. After the amendment application, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, four kinds of soil enzyme activities increased (sucrase, urease, acid phosphatase, and catalase), and concentrations of leached Cd/As decreased, as measured by the DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) and TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure). Changes in the above soil indicators promoted soil health. In both fields, the dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB)-Fe and DCB-Mn concentration in iron plaque increased and root length became longer. Changes in the above root system indicators reduced the root system's absorption of Cd and As but increased that of nutrients. Under 900 g m-2 treatment, the Cd concentration in brown rice of two sites decreased by 55.8% and 28.9%, likewise inorganic As (iAs) decreased by 50.0% and 21.1%, whereas essential amino acids increased by 20.4% and 20.0%, respectively. Furthermore, the Cd and iAs concentrations in brown rice were <0.2 mg kg-1 (maximum contaminant level of Cd and iAs in the Chinese National Food Safety Standards GB2762-2017 for brown rice) under the 900 g m-2 in the moderately contaminated field. These results suggest the combined amendment can improve soil health and brown rice quality in the moderately and highly Cd- and As-co-contaminated paddy soils, offering potential eco-friendly and efficient remediation material for applications in such polluted paddy soils.