Racial and ethnic differences in the improvement in daily activities during a nursing home stay.J Am Geriatr Soc. 2022 04; 70(4):1244-1251.JA
Improving independence in daily activities is an important outcome of postacute nursing home care. We investigated racial and ethnic differences in the improvement in activities of daily living (ADL) during a skilled nursing facility (SNF) stay among Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries with a hip fracture, joint replacement, or stroke.
This was a retrospective study of Medicare beneficiaries admitted to a SNF between 01/01/2013 and 9/30/2015. The final sample included 428,788 beneficiaries admitted to a SNF within 3 days of hospital discharge for a hip fracture (n = 118,790), joint replacement (n = 245,845), or stroke (n = 64,153). Data from residents' first and last Minimum Data Set were used to calculate ADL total scores for self-performance in dressing, personal hygiene, toileting, locomotion on the unit, transferring, bed mobility, and eating. Residents were dichotomized according to having had any improvement in the ADL total score. Multivariable logistic regression models that included a random intercept for the facility were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios for any improvement in ADL function among black and Hispanic residents compared to white residents.
A total of 299,931 residents (69.9%) had any improvement in ADL function. Black residents (OR:0.94; 95% CI: 0.91-0.98) but not Hispanic residents (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.94-1.03) had significantly lower odds to have any improvement in ADL function. Analyses stratified by the reason for prior hospitalization indicated that black residents discharged for hip fracture (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.80-0.93) and stroke (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.83-0.93), but not joint replacement (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.97-1.06) had significantly lower odds for any ADL improvement compared to white residents.
Our findings are evidence for racial disparities in the improvement in ADL function during a SNF stay. Future research should investigate systemic factors that may contribute to disparities in the improvement in ADL function during a SNF stay.