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Local conjugation of auxin by the GH3 amido synthetases is required for normal development of roots and flowers in Arabidopsis.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2022 01 22; 589:16-22.BB

Abstract

Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) amido synthetases conjugate amino acids to a carboxyl group of small molecules including hormones auxin, jasmonate, and salicylic acid. The Arabidopsis genome harbors 19 GH3 genes, whose exact roles in plant development have been difficult to define because of genetic redundancy among the GH3 genes. Here we use CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology to delete the Arabidopsis group II GH3 genes, which are able to conjugate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to amino acids. We show that plants lacking the eight group II GH3 genes (gh3 octuple mutants) accumulate free IAA and fail to produce IAA-Asp and IAA-Glu conjugates. Consequently, gh3 octuple mutants have extremely short roots, long and dense root hairs, and long hypocotyls. Our characterization of gh3 septuple mutants, which provide sensitized backgrounds, reveals that GH3.17 and GH3.9 play prominent roles in root elongation and seed production, respectively. We show that GH3 functions correlate with their expression patterns, suggesting that local deactivation of auxin also contributes to maintaining auxin homeostasis. Moreover, this work provides a method for elucidating functions of individual members of a gene family, whose members have overlapping functions.

Authors+Show Affiliations

State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics & Germplasm Enhancement, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China; Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.Department of Bioregulation and Biointeraction, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, 183-8509, Japan.Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, 183-8509, Japan.Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.Institute of Global Innovation Research, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, 183-8509, Japan.Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA. Electronic address: yundezhao@ucsd.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

34883285

Citation

Guo, Ruipan, et al. "Local Conjugation of Auxin By the GH3 Amido Synthetases Is Required for Normal Development of Roots and Flowers in Arabidopsis." Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 589, 2022, pp. 16-22.
Guo R, Hu Y, Aoi Y, et al. Local conjugation of auxin by the GH3 amido synthetases is required for normal development of roots and flowers in Arabidopsis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2022;589:16-22.
Guo, R., Hu, Y., Aoi, Y., Hira, H., Ge, C., Dai, X., Kasahara, H., & Zhao, Y. (2022). Local conjugation of auxin by the GH3 amido synthetases is required for normal development of roots and flowers in Arabidopsis. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 589, 16-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.11.109
Guo R, et al. Local Conjugation of Auxin By the GH3 Amido Synthetases Is Required for Normal Development of Roots and Flowers in Arabidopsis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2022 01 22;589:16-22. PubMed PMID: 34883285.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Local conjugation of auxin by the GH3 amido synthetases is required for normal development of roots and flowers in Arabidopsis. AU - Guo,Ruipan, AU - Hu,Yun, AU - Aoi,Yuki, AU - Hira,Hayao, AU - Ge,Chennan, AU - Dai,Xinhua, AU - Kasahara,Hiroyuki, AU - Zhao,Yunde, Y1 - 2021/12/02/ PY - 2021/11/17/received PY - 2021/11/17/accepted PY - 2021/12/10/pubmed PY - 2022/2/9/medline PY - 2021/12/9/entrez KW - Amido synthetases KW - Auxin KW - Auxin conjugation KW - CRISPR KW - GH3 genes KW - Gene family SP - 16 EP - 22 JF - Biochemical and biophysical research communications JO - Biochem Biophys Res Commun VL - 589 N2 - Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) amido synthetases conjugate amino acids to a carboxyl group of small molecules including hormones auxin, jasmonate, and salicylic acid. The Arabidopsis genome harbors 19 GH3 genes, whose exact roles in plant development have been difficult to define because of genetic redundancy among the GH3 genes. Here we use CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology to delete the Arabidopsis group II GH3 genes, which are able to conjugate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to amino acids. We show that plants lacking the eight group II GH3 genes (gh3 octuple mutants) accumulate free IAA and fail to produce IAA-Asp and IAA-Glu conjugates. Consequently, gh3 octuple mutants have extremely short roots, long and dense root hairs, and long hypocotyls. Our characterization of gh3 septuple mutants, which provide sensitized backgrounds, reveals that GH3.17 and GH3.9 play prominent roles in root elongation and seed production, respectively. We show that GH3 functions correlate with their expression patterns, suggesting that local deactivation of auxin also contributes to maintaining auxin homeostasis. Moreover, this work provides a method for elucidating functions of individual members of a gene family, whose members have overlapping functions. SN - 1090-2104 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/34883285/Local_conjugation_of_auxin_by_the_GH3_amido_synthetases_is_required_for_normal_development_of_roots_and_flowers_in_Arabidopsis_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0006-291X(21)01634-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -