Identification, analysis, and modeling of the YUCCA protein family genome-wide in Coffea canephora.Proteins. 2022 04; 90(4):1005-1024.P
Auxin is involved in almost every aspect of plant growth and development, from embryogenesis to senescence. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the main known natural auxin that is synthesized by enzymes tryptophan aminotransferase of arabidopsis (TAA) and YUCCA (YUC) of the flavin-containing monooxygenases family (FMO) from one of the tryptophan-dependent pathways. Genome-wide identification and comprehensive analysis of the YUC-protein family have been conducted in Coffea canephora in the present study. A total of 10 members CcYUC gene family were identified in C. canephora. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CcYUC protein family is evolutionarily conserved, and they consist of four groups. In contrast, bioinformatic analysis predicted a hydrophobic transmembrane helix (TMH) for one CcYUC (YUC10) member only. Isoelectric point (pI), molecular mass (Ms), signal peptide, subcellular localization, and phosphorylation sites were predicted for CcYUC proteins. YUC enzymes require the prosthetic group flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and the cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for their enzymatic activity. Therefore, we include the molecular docking for CcYUC2-FAD-NADPH-IPyA and yucasin, which is a specific inhibitor for YUC activity. The docking results showed FAD and NADPH binding at the big and small domain sites, respectively, in CcYUC2. IPyA binds very close to FAD along the big domain, and yucasin competes for the same site as IPA, blocking IAA production. Furthermore, in silico point mutations affect the stability of the CcYUC2-4 proteins.