Development of Chromium(III) Selective Potentiometric Sensors for Its Determination in Petroleum Water Samples Using Synthesized Nano Schiff Base Complex as an Ionophore.J AOAC Int. 2022 Apr 27; 105(3):727-738.JA
Many analytical techniques, such as X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and even traditional spectroscopic and fluorimetric methods, are used for the measurement of Cr(III) ions. These methods are sophisticated and very expensive, so the cheapest and low-cost ion selective electrodes were used.
The quantification of Cr(III) ions in various samples of petroleum water using ion selective electrodes was suggested. Nano chromium modified carbon paste sensor (MCPE) and nano chromium modified screen printed sensor (MSPE) based on Schiff base Cr(III) complex are developed.
The developed nano Cr(III) Schiff base chelate was characterized using elemental, spectroscopic, and thermal analysis techniques. The proposed nano Cr(III) has good properties for antibacterial and antifungal activity. The modified carbon paste and screen-printed sensors were fabricated for determination of Cr(III) ion.
The proposed MCPE (sensor I) and MSPE (sensor II) obeys Nernstian equation upon incorporating nano Cr(III) ionophore in the paste at 25°C with a trivalent cationic slope of 18.8 ± 0.2 and 20.0 ± 0.4 mV/decade. They have showed fast response time around 8 and 5 s, and they may be used for at least 98 and 240 days without significant changes in MCPE and MSPE potential, respectively. The sensors I and II showed good selectivity for Cr(III) ion toward a wide variety of metal ions or anions as confirmed by potentiometric selectivity coefficients values. The detection and quantification limits were defined alongside the other process validation parameters. The results have been compared well to those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), and the data of F- and t-test indicated no significant difference between the proposed and AAS methods.
These sensors have been used to determine Cr(III) ions in genuine spiked different petroleum well water samples with satisfactory percentage recoveries, low standard, and relative standard deviation values using direct potentiometric and standard addition methods. The proposed method of producing nano Cr(III) complex as a sensor material possesses the distinct advantages of being simple, easily reproducible, appropriate for operation, and highly selective and sensitive.
Modified carbon paste and screen-printed electrodes were fabricated based on nano Cr(III) complex as ionophore. The electrodes follow Nernstian behavior, and they optimized according to IUPAC recommendation. They showed a high selectivity for Cr(III) ion over many bi- or trivalent metal ions and anions. The results obtained compared well with those obtained using AAS. They successfully applied for determination of Cr(III) in petroleum water samples.